Patronage


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patronage

1. in politics
a. the practice of making appointments to office, granting contracts, etc.
b. the favours so distributed
2. Christianity the right to present a clergyman to a benefice

Patronage

 

in ancient Italy, a form of protection that in practice established the dependence of poor citizens and citizens with less than full rights upon wealthy citizens.

In the period of the disintegration of the clan system, members of impoverished clans, as well as some plebeians, placed themselves under the patronage of influential fellow citizens. In the period of the late Roman Empire, petty landowners or even whole villages, communities, and towns placed themselves under the patronage of various senators. By transferring their land to a patron and receiving it back in the form of a precarium (property held at the will of the grantor), petty landowners attempted to avoid burdensome taxation and protect themselves from oppression by officials, judges, and usurers. The patronage system is discussed by F. Engels in The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 21, page 149).


Patronage

 

(release on surety), in Soviet criminal law, one of the forms by which a person is freed from criminal responsibility when his actions did not have serious consequences and he does not present a great social danger. Upon petition of an organization or workers’ collective, the offender is turned over to that organization or collective for reeducation and correction by decision of a court or procurator or by decision of an investigator or agency of inquiry with the consent of a procurator. Release on surety is not possible for recidivists and persons who have been released on surety earlier. If a person so released does not justify the trust of the collective in the course of one year, the collective’s decision to terminate its patronage is sent to the court or procurator and the question of criminal responsibility is then reviewed (art. 9 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the RSFSR).

Patronage

See also Philanthropy.
Alidoro
fairy godfather to Italian Cinderella. [Ital. Opera: Rossini, Cinderella, Westerman, 120–121]
Alphonso, Don
supports Bias in return for political favors. [Fr. Lit.: Gil Blas]
Dionysus
inspired men through wine; considered a patron of the arts. [Gk. Myth.: NCE, 767]
Fairy Godmother
maternal fairy abets Cinderella in ball preparations. [Fr. Fairy Tale: “Cinderella”]
References in periodicals archive ?
Overall patronage increased by 1.15 per cent in 2018-19 with trains recording 1.6 per cent growth and bus boardings rising by 0.92 per cent.
In the Jacksonian era, the Constitution's intermixing of the appointment power--between a president who nominates officers and a Senate that confirms them--brought about a struggle between the executive and legislative branches over control of patronage. For the most part, the president carried the day, at least for the offices that require Senate confirmation.
will return $150 million in cash patronage and equity redemptions to its farmer-owners this year, part of the cooperative's commitment to sharing profits with owners and returning money to rural America where it can be reinvested in the community.
The Umno number two also aimed his criticism at Zahid's proposal to accord autonomy to the 222 party divisions, which Muhamad said would only worsen patronage within the party.
The patronages that Markle will champion are expected to reflect her interests such as female empowerment, education, and the arts.
1 / 4 The award has ethical dimensions reflected in the use of King Abdul Aziz's name in the award as well as the patronage of the Saudi king.
The name of the game has been patronage since Zia, and its not changing in this election.
04 : 37 PM - 27/05/2018 Manama, May 27 (BNA): Under the patronage of Shaikh Salman, the son of Personal Representative of His Majesty the King Shaikh Adbullah bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Muharraq is set to host the twelfth edition of an honouring ceremony for national work pioneers Muharraq Governor Salman bin Isa bin Hindi Al Mennai praised Shaikh Salman's patronage of the event, reiterating loyalty of Muharraq citizens to HM King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa.
MidAtlantic Farm Credit, anagricultural lending cooperative headquartered in Westminster, announced to its owner-customers a special patronage distribution of $9.5 million.
On the occasion of the UNESCO General-Director's patronage, Sarajevo Winter Festival Director Ibrahim Spahic expressed his belief that the 25-year UNESCO patronage over the Sarajevo Winter Festival will contribute to a dignified marking of the 25 years of BiH's membership in UNESCO.
THE Nigerian Textile Manufacturers Association (NTMA), has decried the non-implementation of the Federal Government's Executive Order on the patronage of Made-in-Nigeria goods.
On Tueday, Nizwa College of Technology will graduate 1,135 students under the patronage of Dr.