patron

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patron

[Lat.,=like a father], one who lends influential support to some person, cause, art or institution. Patronage existed in various ancient cultures but was primarily a Roman institution. In Roman law the lord was patronus (protector or defender) in relation to his freedmen and to others, known as his clients, whom he represented in the senate and before tribunals. Under the Roman Empire the term was applied to persons like MaecenasMaecenas
(Caius Maecenas) , d. 8 B.C., Roman statesman and patron of letters. He was born (between 74 B.C. and 64 B.C.) into a wealthy family and was a trusted adviser of Octavian (Augustus), who employed Maecenas as his personal representative for various political missions.
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 who supported artists and writers. Perhaps the most munificent patronage occurred in Italy during the RenaissanceRenaissance
[Fr.,=rebirth], term used to describe the development of Western civilization that marked the transition from medieval to modern times. This article is concerned mainly with general developments and their impact in the fields of science, rhetoric, literature, and
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 under patrons such as the MediciMedici
, Italian family that directed the destinies of Florence from the 15th cent. until 1737. Of obscure origin, they rose to immense wealth as merchants and bankers, became affiliated through marriage with the major houses of Europe, and, besides acquiring (1569) the title
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, the SforzaSforza
, Italian family that ruled the duchy of Milan from 1450 to 1535. Rising from peasant origins, the Sforzas became condottieri and used this military position to become rulers in Milan. The family governed by force, ruse, and power politics.
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, and many popes. Francis IFrancis I,
1494–1547, king of France (1515–47), known as Francis of Angoulême before he succeeded his cousin and father-in-law, King Louis XII. Wars with the Holy Roman Emperor
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 of France and his sister Margaret of NavarreMargaret of Navarre
or Margaret of Angoulême
, 1492–1549, queen consort of Navarre; sister of King Francis I of France. After the death of her first husband she married (1527) Henri d'Albret, king of Navarre; their daughter was Jeanne d'Albret.
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 were distinguished patrons of art and letters; a famous English patron was Lord ChesterfieldChesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th earl of,
1694–1773, English statesman and author. A noted wit and orator, his long public career, begun in 1715, included an ambassadorship to The Hague (1728–32), a
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. Since ancient times Christians have honored patron saints as tutelary guardians of persons, institutions, places, and crafts. Historically, artists have depended on institutional (e.g., government and church) as well as individual patronage; Picasso's Guernica and Chagall's stained glass windows are examples of commissioned works. Universities and private foundations have also become important sources of patronage for artists.

patron

1. a customer of a shop, hotel, etc., esp a regular one
2. See patron saint
3. (in ancient Rome) the protector of a dependant or client, often the former master of a freedman still retaining certain rights over him
4. Christianity a person or body having the right to present a clergyman to a benefice
References in periodicals archive ?
Majid Al Nuaimi commended the leadership's support to all educational projects, paying tribute to Shaikh Isa for patronising the ceremony.
Patronising language used by hospital and care home staff to older people should be banned, a report on improving dignity in care has recommended.
The art of the prime ministerial put-down at PMQs is a tightrope walk between reinforcing your authority and coming over all patronising.
LAHORE, February 26, 2010 (Balochistan Times ): Inspector General of Police Punjab Tariq Saleem Dogar has ordered enquiry against DSP Manchanabad, district Bahawalnagar allegedly for patronising proclaimed offenders.
The report says: "A very few secondary school councils felt that the tone of their letter was patronising, but almost all expressed a positive view.
The whole way she talks is with that patronising attitude that 'I know better
Mr Wolfendale yesterday said: ``Without wishing to sound patronising,I think Mr Phillips has missed the point.
The ex-pat Yank - who talks the way most people are strangled - has accused the Beeb of being downmarket, patronising and moronic.
But there's always something just as patronising to take their place in the schedules, unfortunately.
A PATRONISING Tory beer and bingo advert has been ridiculed in online spoofs.
It was a patronising, sexist thing to do," the Daily Star quoted Dorries, as saying.
On his part, Board Chairman of the Shaikha Hessa Girls' School and Undersecretary for Human Resources at the Education Ministry Shaikh Hesham bin Abdulaziz Al Khalifa expressed sincere thanks and gratitude to HRH Princess Sabeeka for patronising the ceremony, praising Shaikh Dr.