patron

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patron

[Lat.,=like a father], one who lends influential support to some person, cause, art or institution. Patronage existed in various ancient cultures but was primarily a Roman institution. In Roman law the lord was patronus (protector or defender) in relation to his freedmen and to others, known as his clients, whom he represented in the senate and before tribunals. Under the Roman Empire the term was applied to persons like MaecenasMaecenas
(Caius Maecenas) , d. 8 B.C., Roman statesman and patron of letters. He was born (between 74 B.C. and 64 B.C.) into a wealthy family and was a trusted adviser of Octavian (Augustus), who employed Maecenas as his personal representative for various political missions.
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 who supported artists and writers. Perhaps the most munificent patronage occurred in Italy during the RenaissanceRenaissance
[Fr.,=rebirth], term used to describe the development of Western civilization that marked the transition from medieval to modern times. This article is concerned mainly with general developments and their impact in the fields of science, rhetoric, literature, and
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 under patrons such as the MediciMedici
, Italian family that directed the destinies of Florence from the 15th cent. until 1737. Of obscure origin, they rose to immense wealth as merchants and bankers, became affiliated through marriage with the major houses of Europe, and, besides acquiring (1569) the title
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, the SforzaSforza
, Italian family that ruled the duchy of Milan from 1450 to 1535. Rising from peasant origins, the Sforzas became condottieri and used this military position to become rulers in Milan. The family governed by force, ruse, and power politics.
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, and many popes. Francis IFrancis I,
1494–1547, king of France (1515–47), known as Francis of Angoulême before he succeeded his cousin and father-in-law, King Louis XII. Wars with the Holy Roman Emperor
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 of France and his sister Margaret of NavarreMargaret of Navarre
or Margaret of Angoulême
, 1492–1549, queen consort of Navarre; sister of King Francis I of France. After the death of her first husband she married (1527) Henri d'Albret, king of Navarre; their daughter was Jeanne d'Albret.
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 were distinguished patrons of art and letters; a famous English patron was Lord ChesterfieldChesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th earl of,
1694–1773, English statesman and author. A noted wit and orator, his long public career, begun in 1715, included an ambassadorship to The Hague (1728–32), a
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. Since ancient times Christians have honored patron saints as tutelary guardians of persons, institutions, places, and crafts. Historically, artists have depended on institutional (e.g., government and church) as well as individual patronage; Picasso's Guernica and Chagall's stained glass windows are examples of commissioned works. Universities and private foundations have also become important sources of patronage for artists.

patron

1. a customer of a shop, hotel, etc., esp a regular one
2. See patron saint
3. (in ancient Rome) the protector of a dependant or client, often the former master of a freedman still retaining certain rights over him
4. Christianity a person or body having the right to present a clergyman to a benefice
References in classic literature ?
As the four sisters went home through the garden, Miss Kate looked after them, saying, without the patronizing tone in her voice, "In spite of their demonstrative manners, American girls are very nice when one knows them.
Great is the speed of the te-rain,' said the banker, with a patronizing grin.
He was very courteous, but a shade patronizing, not only to March, but even, as March fancied, to Horne Fisher as well.
He liked Father Brown in a slightly patronizing way; and Father Brown liked him, though he heartily disliked his theories.
He was a long, offensive, patronizing person, with a moustache that looked like a smear of charcoal, and a habit of addressing her as 'Ah, little one
And I knew why he had kept his latest feats to himself: unwilling to trust me outside the house, he had systematically exaggerated the dangers of his own walks abroad; and when to these injuries he added the insult of a patronizing compliment on my late disguise, I again made no reply.
He had made the latter a sign to seat himself on a stool near the door, and, after several moments of a silence which appeared to be a continuation of a preceding meditation, he said to him in a rather patronizing way, "Good day, Master Jacques.
He spoke in that refined French in which our grandfathers not only spoke but thought, and with the gentle, patronizing intonation natural to a man of importance who had grown old in society and at court.
They were rather patronizing in their relations with those whom they thought not so intellectual.
Then Charlie transferred his blighted affections to a round, rosy, snub-nosed, blue-eyed, little Sophomore who appreciated them as they deserved, whereupon he forgave Anne and condescended to be civil to her again; in a patronizing manner intended to show her just what she had lost.
The time was not long when Martin ceased patronizing the Japanese restaurants.
Their attitude toward him was so broadly tolerant and kindly that it was really patronizing.