patroon


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patroon

(pətro͞on`) [Du.,=patron or employer], in American history, the name given to a Dutch landowner in New Netherland who exerted manorial rights in colonial times. To encourage emigration of Dutch farmers to America, the Dutch West India Company, by a 1629 charter, granted large estates (16 mi/26 km of land along navigable rivers or 8 mi/13 km on each shore and extending inland as far as it proved convenient) to members of the company who would establish settlements of 50 persons within four years. These company members, called patroons, were granted many privileges that were feudal in nature—the right to hold land as a perpetual grant, the right to establish civil and criminal courts, and the right to appoint local officers. Settlers were exempt from public taxes for a decade, but they were specifically required to pay the patroon in money, goods, or services. Manufacturing was prohibited under heavy penalty, and commerce was restricted to a great extent. Before long several estates were established along the Delaware, Connecticut, and Hudson rivers. In 1640 the charter was revised by the Dutch West India Company; the size of the land grants was halved, manufacturing was permitted, and all Dutch inhabitants in good standing could obtain estates. Native American raids, mismanagement, and insufficient cooperation from the Dutch West India Company, however, caused the patroons to fail. The only patroonship that succeeded was Rensselaerswyck, a large estate on the Hudson, which remained in the hands of the Van Rensselaer family until the middle of the 19th cent. After New Netherland came under English control in 1664, the patroon system continued and underwent few changes until 1775, when patroons became proprietors of estates. Some characteristics of feudal tenure did remain, and this condition brought about increasing tension between landlord and tenant in New York state until the Antirent WarAntirent War,
in U.S. history, tenant uprising in New York state. When Stephen Van Rensselaer, owner of Rensselaerswyck, died in 1839, his heirs attempted to collect unpaid rents.
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 (1839–46) brought about important modifications.

Bibliography

See S. G. Nissenson, Patroon's Domain (1937, repr. 1973).

References in periodicals archive ?
Better known as the 9mm Parabellum, the Scherpe Patroon No.
En Baja California, por su parte, vemos como los sectores fabricantes de componentes electroonicos (SCIAN 3344) y de corporativos (SCIAN 5511) relacionados a la IA, muestran una probabilidad bidireccional de instalarse en las cercanias del sector fabricante de productos textiles (SCIAN 3149); mientras que en Queretaro destaca un patroon similar desde la industria de metales no ferrosos (SCIAN 3314) y los fabricantes de equipos y accesorios electronicos (SCIAN 3359) hacia los fabricantes de adhesivos industriales (SCIAN 3256); finalmente, en Chihuahua este oltimo sector muestra un patron de co-locacion bidireccional con los fabricantes de computadoras (SCIAN 3341).
In conclusion I found the Dutch Model 73 revolver a rugged, well built, decent handling revolver although considering the rather sedate ballistics of the Scherpe patroon No.
As a result of these activities, soil at the facility became contaminated with mercury and contaminated soil and stormwater drained into the unnamed tributary to the Patroon Creek.
Die geleidelike ontplooiing van Karolina Ferreira se verhouding met Jess Jankowitz verloop ook allermins op die geykte patroon. Karolina se oorweging van al die verskillende manskarakters of aanspraakmakers verloop sells soos 'n Darwinistiese seleksieproses waarin die konsep van vroulike keuse bevoorgrond word--'n interpretasie wat nog hie in vorige lesings van die teks uitgesonder is nie (en getnig van die interpretatiewe moontlikhede wat deur 'n plasing van die teks binne die neo-Victoriaanse tradisie bewerkstellig word).
Six relatively-recently dead mussel specimens including three from Patroon Bayou and three recently dead mussel specimens from the Big Sandy Creek 1 site were retained and sent for identification/confirmation to a recognized mussel expert, Robert G.
But then I simply cannot ignore that Jacob's "patroon"-ship (Dutch for landholder in New Netherland and New York with manorial rights in the colonial era; from the French patron) derives directly from his Dutch uncle and the Dutch settled down [in] New York State, so the race for place starts over again.
In addition, the cleanup plan calls for the removal of contaminated sediment from a tributary to Patroon Creek, which receives rainwater runoff from the Mercury Refining property.
Rensselaerswijck Patroon Jeremias van Rensselaer (1632-74) expressed a need of opening farmland quickly in order to support the colony.
"Dutch Art and the Hudson Valley Patroon Painters," Louisa Wood Ruby's essay, presents the story of the Dutch portrait artists and shows that the Dutch style of portraiture was important in early American art in regions well into the eighteenth century.
In the character of Jacob Vaark, Morrison introduces a man who benefits directly from the patroon system--he has "inherited" a patroonship, placing him firmly in the master class--and he is forced to confront the temptations that occur:
Manor lord and patroon Kiliaen van Rensselaer warned his nephew Arent van Curler and forbade his tenants from sleeping with Indian females.