pattern formation


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Pattern formation (biology)

The mechanisms that ensure that particular cell types differentiate in the correct location within the embryo and that the layers of cells bend and grow in the correct relative positions. Pattern formation is one of four processes that underlie development, the others being growth, cell diversification, and morphogenesis. See Animal morphogenesis, Cell differentiation, Plant growth

Pattern formation is the creation of a predictable arrangement of cell types in space during embryonic development. The types of patterns of cell types found in animals and plants can be conveniently described as simple or complex. Simple patterns involve the spatial arrangement of identical or equivalent structures such as bristles on the leg of a fly, hairs on a person's head, or leaves on a plant. Such equivalent patterns are thought to be produced by mechanisms that are the same or very similar in the fly and the plant. Complex patterns are those that are made up of parts that are not equivalent to one another. In the vertebrate limb, for example, the structure of the arm is different at each level, with one bone (humerus) in the upper arm, two bones (radius and ulna) in the lower arm, and a complex set of bones making up the wrist and the hand. How are such nonequivalent parts patterned during development? The theoretical framework that allows a basis for understanding how such patterns arise is called positional information. Two stages exist in the positional information framework. First, a cell must become aware of its position within a developing group, or field, of cells. This specification of cellular position requires a mechanism by which each cell within a field can obtain a unique value or address. The second component is the interpretation of the positional address by a cell to manifest a particular cell type by the expression of a particular set of genes. See Developmental biology, Embryonic differentiation

pattern formation

[′pad·ərn fər‚mā·shən]
(embryology)
The embryogenic process in which the spatial differentiation of cells is specified in a structure that initially is largely homogeneous.
References in periodicals archive ?
Histologically granulomas are identified into six or seven types on the basis of cells and tissues architectural pattern formation.
The work will lay the foundation to understand not only the genetic basis of variation in colour pattern formation between Danio species, but also the evolution of biodiversity in other vertebrates.
Furthermore, the problem of pattern formation based on complex Laplacians has been studied in [17].
Revealing the principles behind pattern formation or pattern change and transition in dancers' movement synchronization would make it possible to control those patterns, leading to the development of more effective rhythmic dance training methods.
MEMS CORE") have concluded a joint development agreement and committed to a technology alliance for pattern formation technology used in MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices using submicron-sized (one ten-thousandth of a millimeter) gold particles developed by Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo.
Therefore when any anomalous artery is observed it implicates a disturbance or delay in the stages of normal pattern formation.
Researchers have tried to find diffusing chemical signals in animals that might guide pattern formation.
The 21 papers of this year's iteration include discussions of coupled multi-domain boundary element method and finite element method for analyzing interaction between fluids and structures, simulating pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems by the local integral equation method, green element method solutions to steady inverse contaminant transport problems, an alternative dynamic fundamental solution for plate bending including the shear deformation effect, the inverse scattering analysis of elastic half space by means of the fast volume integral equation method, and the least squares method as a refining technique in boundary element method analysis.
Taylor distribution [1] for sum pattern formation and Bayliss distribution [2] for difference pattern formation.
By combining genetic studies with mathematical modeling, the scientists provided experimental evidence supporting a theoretical model for pattern formation known as the Turing mechanism.
Marie Kmita and her research team at the IRCM provided experimental evidence supporting a theoretical model for pattern formation known as the Turing mechanism.
Yesterday the currency overcame resistance (red line in the chart) that was formed at the moment of reversal pattern formation.