Although both Tocqueville and Kuyper consider religion important for society, Tocqueville does not dwell on the role of the church in his writings on pauperism
. It is only in his Democracy in America that Tocqueville mentions how the church could provide assistance as a nongovernment organization.
It is also clear that it continues to enshrine the notions of deserving/undeserving and fears of pauperism
, even though, as Murphy points out, different words are used today: "mutual obligation" and "welfare-to-work." Nowadays, of course, we live in a middle-class welfare state, where people in genuine need, such as the unemployed and single parents, are finding their subsistence-level benefits held back and even pruned, while "working families" on far higher than average incomes receive family tax benefit, child care rebates, school payments and private health insurance concessions.
The Society for the Prevention of Pauperism
linked the immigrant with poverty and vice (Society for the Prevention of Pauperism
in the City of New York 1820, 17).
The convergence between Bosma and Raben and Stoler on this point suggests that doctrinaire insistence on the steady prominence of race over class, or class over race, may be futile, perhaps even ahistorical, when discussing long periods (like 'the nineteenth century'), or dissimilar issues (elite debates on what to do about Indo-European pauperism
, versus marriage and migration customs within the governing classes).
These critics believed that poor laws stimulated overpopulation and thus pauperism
. With a poor law in place, they predicted, Ireland's population increase would exceed its capital formation, dooming the island to poverty.
The early nineteenth-century national debates about the causes of pauperism
developed the idea of society.
Browsing the 200s leads to the subclass Social Pathology (230), followed directly by Poverty, Dependency, Pauperism
(231); Unemployment (industrial waste, other problems of labor) (234); Vagrants and Vagrancy (238); and Other Social Problems (immigration, race and population problems) (239) .
They deplore the permanent state of pauperism
upon which the industrial order is built, the "perturbation morale" and "pulverisation sociale" that results, and the growing gap among classes that characterizes the modernization of French society (55)Basabose argues that the Exposition gave rise to a realist discourse within the pages of the Revue which "accule a la reconnaissance d'une atonie sociale par laquelle les desherites du systeme en vigueur restent des loques humaines" (57).
grows by what it feeds on," the agency wrote in its annual report.
In some sense, it is the raw existence of the forest itself--its alternate ecology of wood, not fossil fuels, where individuals play a direct role in obtaining their own subsistence and where pauperism
is therefore absent--that acts as a topographical reminder of alternatives to the reigning order of commodified labor.
New social formations became haunted by the crisis of pauperism
, and defined in terms of cultural deficiency and the failure of social reproduction, as opposed to political and economic terms.
In an all-embracing statement the Moral Reform League said that the liquor traffic "is the source of all political corruption, causes of war and pauperism
, the lawlessness and crime, of immorality and vice, of disease and death, of ruined homes and blighted souls." (6) More specifically a major problem of the liquor trade was the practise of businesses paying their staff by cheque.