peanut


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Related to peanut: Peanut allergy

peanut,

name for a low, annual leguminous plant (Arachis hypogaea) of the family Leguminosae (pulsepulse,
in botany, common name for members of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae), a large plant family, called also the pea, or legume, family. Numbering about 650 genera and 17,000 species, the family is third largest, after the asters and the orchids.
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 family) and for its edible seeds. Native to South America and cultivated there for millenia, it is said to have been introduced to Africa by early explorers, and Africans transported as slaves brought the plant with them to North America. In the United States it has been extensively cultivated only since the late 19th cent. It is now grown in most tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions, especially in India and China (the major world producers), W Africa, and the SE United States. The peanut plant is unusual for its habit of geocarpy: when the pod starts to form, it is pushed into the ground by the elongation of its stalk and matures underground. There are two types of peanut plant—bunch nuts and vine, or trailing, nuts—named for the way the plants grow.

The seeds of the plants—peanuts, also known as goobers, pinders, earthnuts, groundnuts, and ground peas—are eaten fresh or roasted and are used in cookery and confectionery. They are ground for peanut butter, an important article of commerce, and yield an oil used for margarine, cooking oil, soap manufacture, and industrial purposes. The herbage is used for hay, the residue from oil extraction (called peanut-oil cakes) for stock feed, and the whole plant, left in the ground, as pasturage for swine. Peanut crops are usually harvested by hand except in the United States. Europe is the chief importer and processor, especially for oil manufacture. In the United States the amount of the crop converted to oil depends on the demand for whole peanuts; it is usually only 15% to 20%. Because of its numerous uses (George Washington CarverCarver, George Washington,
1864?–1943, American agricultural chemist, b. Diamond, Mo., grad. Iowa State College (now Iowa State Univ.; B.S., 1894; M.A. 1896). Born a slave, he later, as a free man, earned his college degree.
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 developed several hundred), high protein content, and adaptability to varying demand, the peanut is an advantageous agricultural crop.

Peanut allergy became an increasing problem in the early 21st cent., leading many parents to avoid exposing their children to peanuts. After a study reported (2015) that young children with a peanut sensitivity were more likely to develop a peanut allergy if they avoided, instead of being regularly exposed to, peanuts, the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recommended (2017) that children begin to be exposed, with medical supervision in some cases, to foods containing peanuts by around six months of age to reduce the likelihood of peanut allergy.

Peanuts are classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Rosales, family Leguminosae.

peanut

[′pē·nət]
(botany)
Arachis hypogaea. A low, branching, self-pollinated annual legume cultivated for its edible seed, which is a one-loculed legume formed beneath the soil in a pod.

peanut

a. a leguminous plant, Arachis hypogaea, of tropical America: widely cultivated for its edible seeds. The seed pods are forced underground where they ripen.
b. the edible nutlike seed of this plant, used for food and as a source of oil
References in periodicals archive ?
Golden Peanut and Tree Nuts (Golden), a subsidiary of Archer Daniels Midland Company , has announced that it has acquired an 80 percent ownership stake in a peanut shelling and storage facility in Jan Kempdorp, South Africa.
LEAP investigators defined "high risk" for peanut allergy as severe eczema with or without egg allergy, "but many other infants are likely at risk, and thus would benefit from early peanut introduction," added Dr.
Among the 530 children who had no signs of peanut allergy (on a skin-prick test) when they entered the study, 14 percent of those who avoided peanut butter--but just 2 percent of those who ate peanut butter--were allergic by age five.
Among 530 babies who had no reaction to the skin test, the peanut allergy rate at age 5 was 13.
4 g of peanut protein to determine whether tolerance to peanuts had been effectively induced.
LEAP compared two strategies to prevent peanut allergy--consumption or avoidance of dietary peanut--in infants who were at high risk of developing peanut allergy because they already had egg allergy and/or severe eczema, an inflammatory skin disorder.
The average person in the States munches their way through more than six pounds of peanuts and peanut butter products every year and March is National Peanut Month.
Krampner presents these peanut-related facts and more in Creamy & Crunchy: An Informal History of Peanut Butter, the All-American Food, his new book from Columbia University Press.
PEANUT BUTTER CHEESECAKE CRUST: 11/2 cups chocolate sandwich cookies, crushed 3 tablespoons butter, softened Preheat oven to 325 degrees.
As the reigning nut experts for more than 100 years, peanut butter is a natural food extension for Planters," says Triona Schmelter, senior director of enhancers, Kraft Foods.
Valencias, which include the popular 'Georgia Red' variety, are the most common peanut in home gardens and have a wonderfully sweet flavor.
For peanut growers, the Fowler was the cultivator of choice because it could get close to the crop, moving dirt in and out to kill weeds and grasses.