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peanut,

name for a low, annual leguminous plant (Arachis hypogaea) of the family Leguminosae (pulsepulse,
in botany, common name for members of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae), a large plant family, called also the pea, or legume, family. Numbering about 650 genera and 17,000 species, the family is third largest, after the asters and the orchids.
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 family) and for its edible seeds. Native to South America and cultivated there for millenia, it is said to have been introduced to Africa by early explorers, and Africans transported as slaves brought the plant with them to North America. In the United States it has been extensively cultivated only since the late 19th cent. It is now grown in most tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions, especially in India and China (the major world producers), W Africa, and the SE United States. The peanut plant is unusual for its habit of geocarpy: when the pod starts to form, it is pushed into the ground by the elongation of its stalk and matures underground. There are two types of peanut plant—bunch nuts and vine, or trailing, nuts—named for the way the plants grow.

The seeds of the plants—peanuts, also known as goobers, pinders, earthnuts, groundnuts, and ground peas—are eaten fresh or roasted and are used in cookery and confectionery. They are ground for peanut butter, an important article of commerce, and yield an oil used for margarine, cooking oil, soap manufacture, and industrial purposes. The herbage is used for hay, the residue from oil extraction (called peanut-oil cakes) for stock feed, and the whole plant, left in the ground, as pasturage for swine. Peanut crops are usually harvested by hand except in the United States. Europe is the chief importer and processor, especially for oil manufacture. In the United States the amount of the crop converted to oil depends on the demand for whole peanuts; it is usually only 15% to 20%. Because of its numerous uses (George Washington CarverCarver, George Washington,
1864?–1943, American agricultural chemist, b. Diamond, Mo., grad. Iowa State College (now Iowa State Univ.; B.S., 1894; M.A. 1896). Born a slave, he later, as a free man, earned his college degree.
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 developed several hundred), high protein content, and adaptability to varying demand, the peanut is an advantageous agricultural crop.

Peanut allergy became an increasing problem in the early 21st cent., leading many parents to avoid exposing their children to peanuts. After a study reported (2015) that young children with a peanut sensitivity were more likely to develop a peanut allergy if they avoided, instead of being regularly exposed to, peanuts, the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recommended (2017) that children begin to be exposed, with medical supervision in some cases, to foods containing peanuts by around six months of age to reduce the likelihood of peanut allergy.

Peanuts are classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Rosales, family Leguminosae.

peanut

[′pē·nət]
(botany)
Arachis hypogaea. A low, branching, self-pollinated annual legume cultivated for its edible seed, which is a one-loculed legume formed beneath the soil in a pod.

peanut

a. a leguminous plant, Arachis hypogaea, of tropical America: widely cultivated for its edible seeds. The seed pods are forced underground where they ripen.
b. the edible nutlike seed of this plant, used for food and as a source of oil
References in periodicals archive ?
Peanuts in general are so popular, that there are six cities in the United States that are actually named Peanut, with three alone in Pennsylvania: Peanut, California; Lower Peanut, Pennsylvania; Upper Peanut, Pennsylvania; Peanut, Pennsylvania; Peanut, Tennesse; and Peanut, West Virginia.
Many vendors on pushcarts are also seen selling the seasonal delight of crispy peanuts at every corner of the cities.
Available as butter, oil, flour, flakes, raw, roasted, shelled, and unshelled (in a variety of flavors), peanuts come with options.
Though peanuts remained favorite dry fruit for entertainment during gossiping around sessions or watching TV in chilly evenings, she added.
However, one study that tracked more than 120,000 men and women from 1986 to 1996 found that while consumption of nuts and peanuts was associated with lower mortality rates among individuals, no protective effect was found for peanut butter.
The key takeaway for parents from the LEAP study and the new NIAID guidelines is early introduction and frequent administration of peanuts to infants, and not the traditionally recommended avoidance.
In the majority of patients, peanut allergy begins early in life and persists as a lifelong problem," wrote lead author Alkis Togias, MD, of NIAID in Bethesda, Md.
The peanuts that we grow in Georgia take between 135 and 140 days to mature, said Bill Tyson, University of Georgia Cooperative Extension coordinator for Bulloch County.
In late 2013, Golden Peanut entered the South African peanut market with the purchase of an 80 per cent ownership stake in a bulk warehouse and a shelling plant in Hartswater.
Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy.
Infants at high risk for peanut allergy should start a peanut-based diet by age 4-11 months, experts from the American Academy of Pediatrics and nine other medical groups advised in the September issue of Pediatrics.