pectoral girdle


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pectoral girdle

[′pek·tə·rəl ′gərd·əl]
(anatomy)
The system of bones supporting the upper or anterior limbs in vertebrates. Also known as shoulder girdle.
References in periodicals archive ?
The pectoral girdle has a kinetic joint with the neurocranium that permits extensive posterior and ventral expansion of the buccal space as the cleithrum is retracted.
The loss of hypaxial musculature and presence of a kinetic pectoral girdle render the primitive mechanism of hyoid depression ineffective.
1] Hypertrophied, a significant part also originating on mesial surface of pectoral girdle.
Arrector ventralis peculiarly divided into well-developed posterodorsal and anteroventral bundles, both originating on ventrolateral surface of pectoral girdle.
The coracoscapulae (cs) and the proximal radials (pr) compose the pectoral girdle.
The order of the ceratobranchials is distinguished by their associations with the hypobranchials, their position relative to the pectoral girdle cartilage (which develops normally), and the presence of pharyngeal teeth on the fifth ceratobranchial.
In this work I will describe the myological and osteological structures of both the cephalic region and the pectoral girdle of the heptapterin Heptapterus mustelinus (Valenciennes, 1836) ('Nemuroglanis clade'), and compare these structures with those of two representatives of the other main, more plesiomorphic, heptapterin group, namely Goeldiella eques (Muller & Troschel, 1948) and Rhamdia guatemalensis (Gunther, 1864) ('basal clade') (see Lundberg et al.
In this section, I will describe in detail the myological and osteological structures of both the cephalic region and the pectoral girdle of the heptapterin Heptapterus mustelinus ('Nemuroglanis clade'), and compare these structures with those of two representatives of the other main, more plesiomorphic, heptapterin group, Goeldiella eques and Rhamdia guatemalensis ('basal clade').
Moreover, as these descriptions are almost exclusively restricted to the osteology and external anatomy, some important morphological aspects of these fishes, such as the configuration of the cephalic muscles, of the structures associated with the mandibular barbels, and of the pectoral girdle musculature, are practically unknown.
The aim of this work is to describe the osteological and myological structures of the cephalic region (branchial apparatus excluded) and pectoral girdle of a species belonging to the type genus of the Pangasiidae, Pangasius macronema and to compare these structures with those of another representative of that genus, Pangasius larnaudii and of representatives of the other pangasiid genus, Helicophagus leptorhynchus and Helicophagus typus, as well as of several other catfishes, as the foundation for a discussion on the synapomorphies and phylogenetic relationships of the Pangasiidae.
The upper jaw and the pectoral girdle of the Sanzo embryo agreed with those of the Uchida embryo and postnatal makos (Table 3).
We had to use skeletal anatomy, including the chondroneurocranium, palatoquadrate, and pectoral girdle for unambiguous identification of the Sanzo (1912) embryo after capture data and the vertebral count suggested that the embryo might be a shortfin mako rather than a white shark.