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a structure, or a section of a roadway, that allows pedestrians to cross roads safely.
Street-level pedestrian crossings are usually set up at street and road intersections and in places of heavy pedestrian traffic. Such crossings are designated by signs, markings on the roadway, protective barriers, and the like. On main roads with heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic, vehicles and pedestrians cross at different levels by means of underground tunnels. Stairways provide entrance to tunnels less than 5 m deep, and escalators are used for deeper ones; ramps are sometimes installed. The tunnel is at least 3 m wide and 2.3 m high, with a stairway entrance width of 2 m.
In some cases, systems of underground crossings and concourses are necessary. Such systems connect several intersections and urban transport stops with railroad terminals, subway stations, and important public buildings. Examples are the complexes of crossings beneath Komsomolskaia Square in Moscow and beneath the square of the Opera in Vienna.
REFERENCESAleksander, K. E., B. I. Dobrer, and O. K. Kudriavtsev. Peshekhodnye estakady i tonneli v gorodakh. Moscow, 1963.
Peresecheniia v raznykh urovniakh na gorodskikh magistraliakh. Moscow, 1968.
G. E. GOLUBEV