peer


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peer

1. a member of a nobility; nobleman
2. a person who holds any of the five grades of the British nobility: duke, marquess, earl, viscount, and baron

Peer

 

the title of a representative of the higher nobility in Great Britain and France. The title first appeared in the Middle Ages. In France it was eliminated in 1789 but temporarily revived during the period from 1814 to 1848. In Great Britain the peerage still exists. Peers have the right to membership in the House of Lords.

peer

[pir]
(communications)
A functional unit in a communications system that is in the same protocol layer as another such unit.

peer

(networking)
A unit of communications hardware or software that is on the same protocol layer of a network as another. A common way of viewing a communications link is as two protocol stacks, which are actually connected only at the very lowest (physical) layer, but can be regarded as being connected at each higher layer by virtue of the services provided by the lower layers. Peer-to-peer communication refers to these real or virtual connections between corresponding systems in each layer.

To give a simple example, when two people talk to each other, the lowest layer is the physical layer which concerns the sound pressure waves travelling from mouth to ear (so mouths and ears are peers) the next layer might be the speech and hearing centres in the people's brains and the top layer their cerebellums or minds. Although, barring telepathy, nothing passes directly between the two minds, there is a peer-to-peer communication between them.

peer

On the same level or providing the same function. In networking, a peer is a node that provides the same functionality as another. For example, two desktop PCs in a network are peers. A desktop PC and a server are not peers as they perform different operations. The desktop PC may query the server for business data, but the server does not query the PC for the same data. See peering.
References in periodicals archive ?
In our study we found that majority (41.4%) of the peer review proformas had no instructions or guidelines for peer reviewer to review the manuscript.
A declaration of the peer reviewer as to the possible conflict of interest while reviewing the manuscript was not mentioned in vast majority (90.2%) of the peer review proformas (P value < 0.05).The policy of disclose of conflict of interests by the journals are variable.
Positive reviewer feedback led to the 'Open Peer Review pilot' being rolled out across several additional titles in 2014, with reviewers having the choice to opt in.
Rachel Witmer, assistant director of the International Certification and Reciprocity Consortium (IC&RC), which offers a peer recovery credential, explains that many issues with peers involve the newness of the work.
Exemplifying the Programmatic Standards and Ethics in our peer program professional lives role models the highest levels of performance to which a practitioner can aspire.
[20] presented a Flexible data sharing algorithm for cloud-enabled extended peer system using Extended Bestpeer.
The AICPA had an extensive due process where administering entities had to compile multiple instances of reviewer nonconformity over multiple years to be able to disqualify someone as a peer reviewer.
One of the most common forms of peer review used to improve student writing is peer editing.
Recently, the ALTO is the technique to provide network information to P2P applications to achieve better peer selection.
The use of peer assessment is often resisted at the tertiary level where a lack of reliability and validity is considered to exist (Falchikov & Goldfinch, 2000) or its use is perceived as shifting responsibility from the academic to the student giving students a much greater role in the assessment process (Searby & Ewers, 1997).