pendentive


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pendentive,

in architecture, a constructive device permitting the placing of a circular dome over a square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room. The pendentives, which are triangular segments of a sphere, taper to points at the bottom and spread at the top to establish the continuous circular or elliptical base needed for the dome. In masonry the pendentives thus receive the weight of the dome, concentrating it at the four corners where it can be received by the piers beneath. Prior to the pendentive's development, the device of corbeling or the use of the squinchsquinch,
in architecture, a piece of construction used for filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a proper base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome.
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 in the corners of a room had been employed. The first attempts at pendentives were made by the Romans, but full achievement of the form was reached only by the Byzantines in Hagia Sophia at Constantinople (6th cent.). Pendentives were commonly used in Renaissance and baroque churches, with a drum often inserted between the dome and pendentives.

Pendentive

The curved triangular surface that results when the top corner of a square space is vaulted so as to provide a circular base for a dome.

Pendentive

 

a curved, triangular feature whose purpose is to enable a circular dome or drum to be supported above a square substructure. The top of the triangle is inverted, filling the space between the arches that join the adjacent pillars of the substructure. The bases of the triangles of the pendentives form a circle and distribute the load of the dome along the perimeter of the arches. Being one of the basic structural elements of Byzantine architecture, pendentives were characteristic of ancient Russian churches. They are also seen in domed buildings of the Renaissance and of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

REFERENCES

Kuznetsov, A. V. Svody i ikh dekor. Moscow, 1938.
Smith, E. The Dome. Princeton, 1950.

pendentive

1. One of a set of curved wall surfaces which form a transition between a dome (or its drum) and the supporting masonry.
2. In medieval architecture and derivatives, one of a set of surfaces vaulted outward from a pier, corbel, or the like.
References in periodicals archive ?
One of the hexapteryga (detail) in the pendentives of the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
Above the staircase and atrium, a circular faceted dome, within an octagonal frame and supported by four pendentives, dramatically descends from a great height to four columns whose steel-capped capitals terminate at the second level.
The Central Reception Room boasts a circular ceiling with pendentives, and plasterwork in neoclassical style designed by Francesco Bernasconi.
It is also very cleverly supported by pendentives, which act as upturned buttresses, bearing the heavy weight and spreading it evenly on the pillars and supporting walls.
The dome is supported on four pendentives and by lower semi-domes on each side of the cross's arms.
In particular, though usually regarded merely as symptomatic of architect Brunelleschi's emulation of Roman architectural forms, the row of nine domed vaults with pendentives capping the renowned facade loggia of the Hospital of the Innocents in Florence (1419-27) may owe something as well to the forms and ideas addressed in this essay insofar as those cupolas tend to isolate each bay from its neighbors.
However, there were also structural problems associated with the piers supporting the pendentives, drum, and dome of Soufflot's creation, and it was Jean-Baptiste Rondelet (1743-1828), Soufflot's former assistant, who emerged as the key figure in stabilising the building (although Maximilien Brebion [1716-96] and Francois 'Le Romain' Soufflot [before 1764-1802] were also important protagonists).
Above the central pool and its fountain there was probably a vaulted ceiling supported by on arcading or columns--some elements of a unique stucco ceiling have survived--and possibly a large dome set on pendentives that would have echoed and reflected the sound of cascading water.
The mosque of 1505-06 has pendentives supporting a dome which are roofed over in a manner very similar to the exterior of the New Sacristy; see Aklanapa, 211-18, pls.
There is another piece called For Beckwourth, which is made of oak slabs, forming a crude shape each side of which is a semicircle, the whole surmounted by a kind of dome on pendentives.
Its beauty is enhanced by Indiana limestone, Italian marble, a gabled roof with zinc panels, gold leafed crosses on the pendentives, and liturgical furnishings that include 12,000-pound statues of Mary and Jesus.
The interior walls, groined vaults, pendentives and the entire barrel vault ceiling including the dome will be replastered prior to the final restoration work.