Hard and compacted layers can be identified in sands by digging a pit and looking and feeling for changes in soil structure, using a simple push probe to feel for hard layers or by using a penetrometer
and De Groot, D.: 2011, Evaluation of undrained shear strength using full-flow penetrometers
. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 137, No.
are available for purchase through Beneficial Designs, Inc.
Contrary to the vertical penetrometer
, which enables only point measurements of the soil strength, horizontal penetrometer
can make instantaneous measurements during driving.
has been found to have limitations in its use, but Mulqueen et al.
Rind strength can easily be measured as the force required to puncture the rind with a needle with a rind penetrometer
(Sibale et al., 1992; Chesang-Chumo, 1993; Masole, 1993).
THE Curragh racecourse is experimenting with the use of a penetrometer
to help determine the state of the ground at different points on the track, writes Tony O'Hehir.
measurements were taken at four depths (0, 3.5, 7.0 and 10.5 cm) in each quadrat at both sampling dates.
Manual soil cone penetrometers
are inexpensive and provide quick soil compaction assessments.
The CP-1000 is a cone penetrometer
, a tool that can go deep below the surface to collect data that characterizes the soil.
A series of soil cone penetrometer
measurements has been used to determine underground disturbance.
(1992) described use of a modified electronic rind penetrometer
to measure stalk strength.