The Court thus concluded that "[t]he restrictions were reasonably related to legitimate penological
whether the MDOC had a legitimate penological
reason to deny
justification for a punishment to be proportional to the
The subjective views of prison officials may justify the denial of care, if based on "legitimate, penological
considerations." (51) Consequently, the denial of adequate care in certain instances will be subject to a balancing test of those interests against the inmate's medical needs.
prisoner's rights at de minimis cost to valid penological
(22) Cognizant of the rights of prisoners and the pressing need for deference to the "professional expertise of corrections officials," (23) the Court sought to develop a standard that "is responsive both to the policy of judicial restraint regarding prisoner complaints and [to] the need to protect constitutional rights." (24) Under the standard established by the Court--the Turner test--a prison regulation that impinges on inmates' constitutional rights "is valid if it is reasonably related to legitimate penological
He found that the abolition of juvenile executions in a majority of states (thirty-one), including the recent abolition of the juvenile death penalty by seven states, and the infrequency with which state courts actually issued the sentence, evinced a national consensus that executing juveniles was a disproportionate punishment and could not be justified by traditional penological
question advances a traditional penological
goal or is "nothing
Inmates typically assert four basic arguments in support of their Lackey claim: (1) an execution after prolonged confinement is contrary to society's evolving standards of decency; (2) an execution after prolonged confinement is contrary to the Framers' intent; (3) an execution after prolonged confinement does not further the penological
goals of deterrence and retribution; and (4) an execution after prolonged confinement is inconsistent with international norms.
The Court decided that a regulation that curtails fundamental constitutional rights can be upheld only if the restriction is "reasonably related to penological
interests." (9) Legitimate "penological
interests" typically include deterring crime, rehabilitating prisoners and ensuring institutional security.
In Prison State, Bert Useem and Anne Morrison Piehl take on the social and penological
critiques and alarms over the increase of imprisonment in the US.
The plurality concluded that a state's "refusal to change its method [of execution] can be viewed as cruel and unusual" only if the state, "without a legitimate penological
justification, rejects an alternative method that is feasible and readily available and that would significantly reduce a substantial risk of severe pain." (16) Roberts noted that none of the other currently available methods of execution met this standard, including the "one-drug protocol" (just sodium thiopental) that the petitioners urged.