Globally, there are an estimated 1.5-2 million new cases and 70,000 deaths each year, and 350 million people are at risk of infection and disease.1 In Pakistan the prevalence has been estimated at 2.7% in the North-Western part of the country with incidence at 4.6 cases/1000 persons/year over the last ten years.2 Pentavalent
antimony compounds like meglumine antimoniate are the main therapeutic agents for various forms of leishmaniasis.1.
vaccines in the EPI in India: A counsel for caution.
Compared with the pentavalent
methylated arsenic species, the trivalent species are even more reactive and cause calcium homeostasis disturbances, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis to a higher extent.
antimony including sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate (MA) is used for treatment of leishmaniasis for the past 80 years.
Deaths as side effect: Pentavalent
vaccine was introduced in the national immunization programme in Sri Lanka in January 2008 but after several thousand doses were administered, it was withdrawn in April 2008 because of 25 serious adverse reactions that included 5 deaths.
All patients reported have been treated with pentavalent
antimonial agents; this treatment is still widely used in VL-endemic areas, but it has considerable side effects, and resistance is increasing (1).
The goal of this study was to investigate the urinary profiles for the trivalent and pentavalent
As metabolites in both high- and low-iAs-exposed subjects.
This update focuses on the 361 cases (69% of 522) in patients whose demographic data were collected systematically under treatment protocols for therapy with the pentavalent
antimonial compound sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam[R]; GlaxoSmithKline, United Kingdom) at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, District of Columbia (1).
Through this support, Gavi is helping Pakistan to reach its children with the five-in-one pentavalent
vaccine - which protects children against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis as well as haemophilus influenza type b and Hepatitis B - and pneumococcal vaccine, which protects children against the leading cause of pneumonia, the world's leading vaccine-preventable cause of death in children.
In majority of the cases pentavalent
antimony compounds are still the drug of choice for treatment.
Gates along with his team met Azad and discussed issues relating to immunization programme, pentavalent
vaccine, HIV/AIDS, infectious as well as non-communicable diseases during the meeting that lasted close to an hour and half.