This rapid change in electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites clearly indicates the formation of continuous interconnected conductive network chains of CNT-CNT in the nanocomposites, which is well known as percolation network
The conductive nanoparticles are dispersed throughout the matrix during curing, and a percolation network
Stanbery, HelioVolt's founder, when made under the proper conditions CIGS spontaneously arranges itself at the nanoscale to create a percolation network
that drastically reduces losses, making the material the most efficient and reliable thin-film for photovoltaics.
All these properties are dependent on the loading levels of CB and its mesoscopic structure such as percolation network.
This percolation threshold level is close to that already reported on the CB-based PVDF composites (12) but far higher than those observed on the binary PVDF blends tilled with CB as the third component (13-15) because the immiscible phase structure of matrix polymers and the effective CB concentration highly affects the formation of percolation network of CB.
In melt state, the intercalated and exfoliated layers act as physical nodes forming a 3D percolation network
(2), (21), (22), which improves the energy transport and the heat transfer caused by elastic waves.
This non-terminal behavior can he attributed to the formation of a percolation network
, which restrains the long-range motion of the polymer chains.
Similar nonterminal behavior has also been observed on many other polymer/CNTs composite systems (33-42), which is believed to be attributed to the formation of the mescoscopic percolation network
structure of nanotubes.
As a result, the transient percolation network
is broken down due to the sharply reduced particle-particle interactions, leading to a remarkable change of viscoelastic behavior from solid-like to a liquid one.
Consequently, such end-result could cause the exhibition of a solid-like behavior at low frequencies, indicating the formation of percolation networks
within the polymeric matrix.
The thin gaps between the adjacent conductive fillers, or the breakdowns of percolation networks
increased with an increase in Joule heating or environment temperature in the case of the difference in thermal expansion.
As will be discussed, this produced double percolation networks
only in the direction of shear flow.