perestroika


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perestroika

(pər`ĕstroy`kə), Soviet economic and social policy of the late 1980s. Perestroika [restructuring] was the term attached to the attempts (1985–91) by Mikhail GorbachevGorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich
, 1931–, Soviet political leader. Born in the agricultural region of Stavropol, Gorbachev studied law at Moscow State Univ., where in 1953 he married a philosophy student, Raisa Maksimovna Titorenko (1932?–99).
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 to transform the stagnant, inefficient command economy of the Soviet Union into a decentralized market-oriented economy. Industrial managers and local government and party officials were granted greater autonomy, and open elections were introduced in an attempt to democratize the Communist party organization. By 1991, perestroika was on the wane, and after the failed August CoupAugust Coup,
attempted coup (Aug. 18–22, 1991) against Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. On the eve of the signing ceremony for a new union treaty for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, members of the Politburo and the heads of the Soviet military and security
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 of 1991 was eclipsed by the collapse of the Soviet Union, the establishment of the Russian Federation, and other dramatic political, legal, and economic changes.

Bibliography

See M. Gorbachev, Perestroika (1988); E. A. Hewett and V. H. Winston, ed., Milestones in Glasnost and Perestroyka (1991).

perestroika

a Russian term meaning reconstruction. The term was adopted by GORBACHEV in the USSR from 1985 to 1989, to characterize the changes in the economy and society which he, and others, saw as necessary after two decades of slow economic growth. The precise policies were slow in being clarified, but in general involved reform of the state-planning system originated by STALIN, greater autonomy of individual enterprises, an increasing role for the market, increased freedom for family businesses and cooperatives and greater opening to foreign trade and foreign firms. Gorbachev also used the term alongside that of GLASNOST as a rallying call to the Soviet people to re-examine all aspects of their lives and to revitalize their motivation and their commitment to SOCIALISM. Even though Gorbachev at first thought that perestroika would be achieved rapidly, by 1990 the Soviet economy was still stagnating and Gorbachev was ousted from power in 1991.
References in periodicals archive ?
He argues that Putin has significantly diminished the achievement of perestroika and is part of an over-centralised system that presents a precarious future for Russia.
Rather than a sector held back by bureaucratic intransigence, Soviet agriculture was throughout perestroika befuddled by the same new problems faced by the entire economy: radical drops in production, the siphoning off of funds to cooperatives, and broken connections between producers and processors as the links previously enforced by Gosplan and Gossnab were severed.
So, no, it's not as bad as it was before perestroika.
Comparing reform processes in East-Central European countries in the late 1980s, we must admit that Czechoslovak perestroika was rather bashful.
After becoming the Soviet president in 1985, Gorbachev pursued the policies of Glasnost (openness) and Perestroika as tools of reform, which have been credited to be the catalysts for collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
* perestroika (per-uh-STROY-kuh) (n): "restructuring" in Russian; in this case, economic and governmental reform
Kushner says he's made changes to "Perestroika" every time there's been a major production of it.
The former USSR President accused Europe and America of a failure to understand Russia since he started his glasnost and perestroika reforms of the Soviet Union almost a quarter of a century ago.
QUIZ CHALLENGE: 1 Perestroika; 2 Montmorency; 3 Carousel; 4 The great auk; 5 County Cork.
The Perestroika era in the Soviet Union effectively ended Communism and the existence of the country known as the USSR.
ANSWERS: 1 Perestroika; 2 Montmorency; 3 Carousel; 4 The great auk; 5 County Cork; 6 Faye Dunaway; 7 Portuguese; 8 Edward II; 9 The sitar; 10 Rebecca.
The exhibition revisited and solidified the gallery's own role in bringing this work to New York during perestroika (in a manner similar to its 2006 exhibition "Artists Against the State: Perestroika Revisited"), and, considered in the light of the recent Sots Art exhibition that traveled from Moscow to Paris, it reasserted the significance of the Peppers, who have not shown actively since the early '90s.