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Related to perfect participle: past participle


Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. There are two participle forms: the present participle and the past participle.
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a verb form combining the properties of both verb and adjective and expressing adjectivally an action or state as a property of a person or object, as in pishushchii (“writing”), podniatyi (“raised”), and sgibaemyi (“flexible”). In Russian, the verbal nature of a participle is evidenced by the presence of the categories of voice and aspect and by the retention of patterns of government adjoinment (primykanie); this is seen by comparing dolgo rabotaet v pole (“he works long in the field”) and dolgo rabotaiushchii v pole (“the man working long in the field”). A participle does not form a sentence, however, except in the case of the short forms, and lacks the categories of mood and person. It possesses the category of relative tense, which refers not to the moment of speech, as with a verb, but to the time of the main action as expressed by the conjugated verb of the predicate. A participle resembles an adjective in having the agreement categories of gender, number, and case. Like adjectives, participles have the syntactic function of defining, which may be parenthetic (parenthetic attribute construction). Participles may undergo adjectivization, that is, become adjectives.

Participles are present in all the Indo-European languages and are a special grammatical subclass in other language families, such as Finno-Ugric, Altaic, and Semitic. In contemporary linguistics there is no unanimously held opinion concerning the grammatical nature of the participle.


References in periodicals archive ?
As it would seem, the main reason why the perfect participle has not been considered adjectivised is that constructions with the perfect participle are to a large extent paradigmatically integrated, (21) as a consequence of which they should be qualified as instances of 'verbal periphrasis' (or, to be more precise, better instances; see Bentein 2011).
1, and at the same time is able to account for constructions with the aorist and the perfect participle.
Here, the split between subjunctive and indicative forms is prior to the separation of the perfect participle, or better, aparemfato, marking.
This predicts a developmental advantage for those Greek children who opt for the subjunctive form to convey "root infinitival" interpretation instead of the perfect participle form, the aparemfato.
Although there are several factors to be taken into account, such as the fact that the corpus consists of both prose and poetry, we can say that the results presented in Table 5 more or less correspond to the semantic observations made earlier on: with verbs of state, the constructions of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with aorist participle and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with perfect participle are at the top, while for verbs of movement the constructions of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with future participle are.
Next to the verb [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with perfect participle in (20), we notice [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with present and perfect participle in (21) and (22).
In the case of vavri- the corresponding perfect participle has an imperfective, present-like meaning (cf.
The verses preceding this passage describe Indra's heroic deeds, and the choice of the perfect participle (ta visva cakrvamsam) expresses the completion of these deeds.
One such form is the perfect participle [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of the auxiliary verb CbM.
Based on Indo-Iranian and Greek, PIE reduplicated perfect participles are reconstructed with zero-grade of the root (cf.
eye', which is best analyzed as an original perfect participle (Leumann 1952: 105), points to the development *[k.
Having reestablished this form, needless to say I recalled my "unlikely" reconstructed forms of a year earlier, and I realized we had here the first, long overlooked, example of a perfect participle from a root ending in k, which must necessarily become x before the full grade of the perfect participle suffix.