Participle

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Related to perfect participle: past participle

participle

Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. There are two participle forms: the present participle and the past participle.
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Participle

 

a verb form combining the properties of both verb and adjective and expressing adjectivally an action or state as a property of a person or object, as in pishushchii (“writing”), podniatyi (“raised”), and sgibaemyi (“flexible”). In Russian, the verbal nature of a participle is evidenced by the presence of the categories of voice and aspect and by the retention of patterns of government adjoinment (primykanie); this is seen by comparing dolgo rabotaet v pole (“he works long in the field”) and dolgo rabotaiushchii v pole (“the man working long in the field”). A participle does not form a sentence, however, except in the case of the short forms, and lacks the categories of mood and person. It possesses the category of relative tense, which refers not to the moment of speech, as with a verb, but to the time of the main action as expressed by the conjugated verb of the predicate. A participle resembles an adjective in having the agreement categories of gender, number, and case. Like adjectives, participles have the syntactic function of defining, which may be parenthetic (parenthetic attribute construction). Participles may undergo adjectivization, that is, become adjectives.

Participles are present in all the Indo-European languages and are a special grammatical subclass in other language families, such as Finno-Ugric, Altaic, and Semitic. In contemporary linguistics there is no unanimously held opinion concerning the grammatical nature of the participle.

V. A. VINOGRADOV

References in periodicals archive ?
(Geldner, RV I: 380) The perfect participle describes a completed action in contrast to the use of the imperfect in the main clause.
This contrasts with the resultative, completive use of the synchronic perfect participle, an example of which is given in the following passage:
In the next section, I would like to propose an alternative account of the categorial status of the participle, which takes into account the three main conclusions made at the end of [section] 2.1, and at the same time is able to account for constructions with the aorist and the perfect participle.
In the context of the latter, Ross (1972:316) has similarly posited the following scale (what he calls a 'linear squish') for English: verb > present participle > perfect participle > passive participle > adjective > preposition > adjectival noun > noun.
Here, the split between subjunctive and indicative forms is prior to the separation of the perfect participle, or better, aparemfato, marking.
This predicts a developmental advantage for those Greek children who opt for the subjunctive form to convey "root infinitival" interpretation instead of the perfect participle form, the aparemfato.
Whether or not the active meaning of the perfect participle of drincan is a result of its transitive-intransitive character, it is quite clear that druncen when used as a participle does mean, as Wrenn notes, 'having drunk' rather than 'having been drunk'.
My corpus contains about fifty examples of clitic pronouns accompanying the following constructions: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with aorist participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with present, perfect and aorist participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with present and future participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with future participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with aorist and perfect participle; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with future participle and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with present and perfect participle.
There is the well-known case of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with perfect participle. The reference grammars state that the construction is suppletive in the third person of the medio-passive indicative perfect and pluperfect of verbs ending in a stop, and the medio-passive subjunctive and optative perfect.
One such form is the perfect participle [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of the auxiliary verb CbM.
'eye', which is best analyzed as an original perfect participle (Leumann 1952: 105), points to the development *[k.sup.w]k > Skt.
Having reestablished this form, needless to say I recalled my "unlikely" reconstructed forms of a year earlier, and I realized we had here the first, long overlooked, example of a perfect participle from a root ending in k, which must necessarily become x before the full grade of the perfect participle suffix.