(redirected from periodontal disease)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Wikipedia.


Inflammation of the periodontium.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an acute or chronic inflammation of the periodontium and adjacent tissues. Periodontitis is usually a result of dental caries and arises as infection spreads from the root canal through the apical foramen to the apex of the root. It may also develop from frequently recurring injury to the tooth; this kind of injury can result from such occupational habits as biting thread or grasping metal nails with the teeth and from any habitual biting of hard objects, for example, pencils or the mouthpieces of pipes.

Acute periodontitis is manifested by sharp pain in the region of the tooth that intensifies when the inflamed area is touched. Swelling often occurs in the gums, lips, or cheeks, and the affected tooth becomes loose. The enlarged submaxillary lymph nodes become sensitive, and fever occasionally arises. The process may sometimes be complicated by osteomyelitis of the jaw, purulent inflammation of the soft tissues of the face and neck, and acute sepsis. Symptoms of chronic periodontitis usually include discomfort while chewing, halitosis, and sometimes fistulas on the gums and facial skin. Chronic periodontitis can lead to the formation of a cyst of the jaw, and both forms of periodontitis can sensitize the body to streptococci.

Treatment of periodontitis is usually conservative, consisting of filling the root canals. Often the tooth is removed. Abscesses are lanced, and antibiotics are used to treat pronounced general symptoms.


Groshikov, M. I. Periodontit. Moscow, 1964.
Marchenko, A. I. “Bolezni periodonta.” In Rukovodstvo po terapevticheskoi stomatologii. Moscow, 1967.
Ovrutskii, G. D., F. G. Gasimov, and S. V. Makarov. Bolezni zubov. Kazan, 1967.
Rybakov, A. I., and V. S. Ivanov. Klinika terapevticheskoi stomatologii. Moscow, 1973.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
This was in keeping with a number of studies which have suggested that obesity is associated with oral diseases, particularly periodontitis.27 Previously results show that there are several factors, such as bad oral hygiene, diet, socioeconomic status, lack of access to oral health services had recognized to progression of periodontal disease in their studies.
The exact cause of periodontal disease has not been definitely identified; however, augmented secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines is assumed to be a contributing factor.
Although various studies conducted all over the world have documented that periodontal disease is an independent risk factor for PTB, still oral health is often neglected during pregnancy when the mother is more prone to develop infection due to hormonal changes.
Using univariate logistic regression, we first examined the crude association between the individual and aggregate markers of systemic inflammation and periodontal disease. We then constructed multivariable logistic regression models to assess the extent of association between systemic inflammation and periodontal disease while accounting for the effects of demographic, behavioural and socio-economic factors.
Individuals with periodontal disease have elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein, an inflammatory marker linked to increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
These data indicate that immunosuppression may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease induced by this commensal.
The aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress that occurs in the periodontium of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus without signs of periodontal disease and to establish a possible link between this systemic condition and the morphologic changes in periodontal structures.
The original PST test, launched in 1997, was the first genetic test to evaluate a person's risk for developing periodontal disease.
Prospective studies have found an association between periodontal disease and heart disease.
Talk to your dentist if your gums are inflamed, painful or bleed when brushing as this could be due to gingivitis, an early sign of periodontal disease. | Visit