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Inflammation of the periodontium.



an acute or chronic inflammation of the periodontium and adjacent tissues. Periodontitis is usually a result of dental caries and arises as infection spreads from the root canal through the apical foramen to the apex of the root. It may also develop from frequently recurring injury to the tooth; this kind of injury can result from such occupational habits as biting thread or grasping metal nails with the teeth and from any habitual biting of hard objects, for example, pencils or the mouthpieces of pipes.

Acute periodontitis is manifested by sharp pain in the region of the tooth that intensifies when the inflamed area is touched. Swelling often occurs in the gums, lips, or cheeks, and the affected tooth becomes loose. The enlarged submaxillary lymph nodes become sensitive, and fever occasionally arises. The process may sometimes be complicated by osteomyelitis of the jaw, purulent inflammation of the soft tissues of the face and neck, and acute sepsis. Symptoms of chronic periodontitis usually include discomfort while chewing, halitosis, and sometimes fistulas on the gums and facial skin. Chronic periodontitis can lead to the formation of a cyst of the jaw, and both forms of periodontitis can sensitize the body to streptococci.

Treatment of periodontitis is usually conservative, consisting of filling the root canals. Often the tooth is removed. Abscesses are lanced, and antibiotics are used to treat pronounced general symptoms.


Groshikov, M. I. Periodontit. Moscow, 1964.
Marchenko, A. I. “Bolezni periodonta.” In Rukovodstvo po terapevticheskoi stomatologii. Moscow, 1967.
Ovrutskii, G. D., F. G. Gasimov, and S. V. Makarov. Bolezni zubov. Kazan, 1967.
Rybakov, A. I., and V. S. Ivanov. Klinika terapevticheskoi stomatologii. Moscow, 1973.


References in periodicals archive ?
Genotipic characterization of Porphyromonas gingivalis isolated from subgingival plaque and blood sample in positive subjects with periodontitis.
La periodontitis agresiva es un tipo especifico de periodontitis con caracteristicas clinicas claramente diferentes de la periodontitis cronica.
Although previous studies have investigated the relationship between osteoporosis and tooth loss, few have examined the link between estrogen therapy and periodontitis.
Researchers have repeatedly shown that smokers with periodontitis respond less favorably to both nonsurgical and surgical therapy.
A plethora of evidence is available in the current literature which supports the notion that uncontrolled diabetes exacerbates periodontitis and vice versa.
The presence of severe periodontitis might be indicative of metabolic dysregulation and by the identification of diabetes, treatment of this disease can be initiated, which is also relevant for the successful treatment of periodontitis," the study stated.
We hypothesized that PAR-2 expression is higher in the GCF of patients with severe versus moderate chronic periodontitis.
Chronic periodontitis defined by presence of [greater than or equal to] 2 Interproximal sites with CAL [greater than or equal to] 4 mm or [greater than or equal to] 2 interproximal sites with Probing Depth [greater than or equal to] 5 mm developed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) Working Group.
Although low IL-6 was observed in periodontitis alone in comparison with periodontitis associated heart disease.
Linear model (Figure 1): In mid-1960 s Human and animal experimental evidence demonstrated the critical role of bacteria in the initiation of gingivitis and periodontitis which led to a clear concept of pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases.
In which EBV-1 and HCMV may reside dormant in periodontal cells even after periodontal treatment (6) causing destruction of alveolar bone (7,8) HSV-1 and HCMV synergistically populate porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis site (9).