However, several other participants referenced peripheral cues after viewing the personal message and thus likely participated in peripheral processing (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986).
The findings indicated that none of the participants reached elaboration through the central processing route, but rather took part in peripheral processing or in some cases retained their initial attitude (Petty et al.
The ELM describes two routes in which attitude change can occur: the central processing route and the peripheral processing route.
Because people who are knowledgeable about a topic process information with a higher amount of elaboration, they typically use the central processing route, while those who are less informed use the peripheral processing route (Wood, Rhodes, & Biek, 1995).
But side-impact crashes increase markedly over age 70, and findings from our head-movement studies suggest a reason: older drivers fail to compensate for the loss of peripheral processing
While H2 predicts less reliance on peripheral processing
, the question of whether a visual decision aid places low-literacy consumers on equal footing with high-literacy consumers persists.
Petty and Cacioppo describe a variety of factors that can influence people's use of central processing, in which they analyze the message itself, or their use of peripheral processing
, in which they depend on cues such as the reputation of a newspaper or a Web site where the information appears.
For example, celebrity endorsements could promote a shallower peripheral processing
of a PSA, with a more temporary attitude and behavior change, simply because the messages of well-liked and credible celebrities may go unchallenged without ever motivating viewers to think deeply about the message content.
An audience engages in peripheral processing
when it is unwilling to engage in deeper, effortful processing because it may lack interest in the advertised product or does not have enough time to process the message, or if the message is too technical or otherwise complex for the audience to comprehend.
During central processing, the focus is on product- and/or brand-related information; during peripheral processing
, issues related to the ad or commercial are more dominant.
The CA-20 off-loads many of the peripheral processing
functions common to all video encoding applications leaving the host processor(s) free to perform the critical video encoding task.
During central processing, the focus is on the product/ brand and message-related variables; during peripheral processing
, the creative executional aspects of the advertising are dominant.