After choroidal nodules, periphlebitis
is believed to be the second most important ocular manifestation of TB.
Without timely intervention, combined occlusion can lead to rubeosis iridis, neovascular glaucoma, retinal necrosis, periphlebitis
of the central vein, and eventually permanent vision loss [18, 22].
Sarcoid uveitis was diagnosed by characteristic ocular signs of sarcoidosis based on the International Workshop on Ocular Sarcoidosis (IWOS) guidelines of 2009 : (1) mutton-fat keratic precipitates and iris nodules; (2) nodules in the trabecular meshwork and tent-shaped peripheral anterior synechia; (3) snowball or string-of-pearls vitreous opacities; (4) nodular periphlebitis
; (5) multiple chorioretinal lesions; (6) optic disc nodule(s)/granuloma(s) and/or solitary choroidal nodule; and (7) bilaterality.
Binding of retinal vein which forms a barrier to the CNS may explain the occurrence of periphlebitis
retinae in MS patients [98, 99].
may occur in 5-36% of cases, presenting with exudation and vascular sheathing due to the accumulation of irflammatory cells.
Cystoid macular oedema (CMO) occurs in 25% of cases, (11) and other findings may include neovascularisation involving the peripheral retina or optic disc, periphlebitis
and optic disc swelling.
Less common features included exudative retinal detachment, anterior uveitis, periphlebitis
, branch retinal vein occlusion, and vitreous hemorrhage.
as the initial clinical finding in a patient with Hodgkin's disease.
Another possibility is periphlebitis
of the retinal blood vessels related to systemic tuberculosis.
and endovasculitis of retinal vessels.
The presence of periphlebitis
, anterior uveitis, and macular edema indicate a hyperpermeable and inflammatory process.
Intracranial dehiscence of otogenic origin leads to chronic erosion and thrombophlebitis or periphlebitis