peritonitis


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Related to peritonitis: primary peritonitis, meconium peritonitis

peritonitis

(pĕr'ĭtənī`tĭs), acute or chronic inflammation of the peritoneumperitoneum
, multilayered membrane which lines the abdominal cavity, and supports and covers the organs within it. The part of the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity is called the parietal peritoneum.
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, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs. It is caused by invasion of bacterial agents or irritant foreign matter during rupture of an internal organ, by spreading infection from the female genital tract, by penetrating injuries of the abdominal wall, by dissemination of infections through the blood and lymphatic channels, or by accidental pollution during surgery. Typically, peritonitis is a serious complication of another abdominal disorder, such as appendicitis, ulcers, colitis, or rupture of the gall bladder. Severe abdominal pain, vomiting, prostration, and high fever are predominant symptoms. Treatment includes antibiotic therapy and the identification and elimination of the cause of the infection.

Peritonitis

 

inflammation of the peritoneum. Peritonitis can result from a variety of diseases and traumas of the abdominal organs, including acute appendicitis, perforating gastric or duodenal ulcers, and intestinal obstructions; it can also develop from surgical complications. The causative agents are either cocci or Escherichia coli; when peritonitis is caused by the latter, for example, in perforating appendicitis or perforation of an intestinal tumor, the course of the inflammation can be very severe.

Depending on the distribution of the inflammatory process, peritonitis can be circumscribed, that is, confined to some portion of the abdominal cavity, or diffuse. The clinical picture of acute abdomen consists of the symptoms of diffuse peritonitis— namely, sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, retention of stools and gases in a condition called adynamic ileus, local or diffuse rigidity of the abdominal muscles, marked tenderness upon palpation of the anterior abdominal wall, and systemic intoxication as evidenced by fever, increased heart rate, and neutrophilic leukocytosis.

Chronic peritonitis, which is usually encountered in tuberculosis, is rare. The exudative form is attended by an accumulation of exudate in the abdominal cavity, while the adhesive form is marked by the appearance of massive adhesions. Serous, purulent, fibrocaseous, and septic peritonites are distinguished according to the type of exudate. Peritonitis is treated surgically and can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and treatment of acute abdominal conditions.

REFERENCE

Simonian, K. S. Peritonit. Moscow, 1971.

R. B. KAVTELADZE

peritonitis

[‚per·ə·tə′nīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the peritoneum.

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum
References in periodicals archive ?
The complication rate of peritonitis and catheter leakage was 26.
The major CT findings of 7 cases of purulent peritonitis included ascites, peritoneal thickening, thickening and adhesion of intestinal wall, free intraperitoneal air and mesenteric edema (Table-III).
Mortality of perforation peritonitis depends on age, sex, ulcer site, treatment delay and type of treatment.
En marzo del 2016, tuvo nuevo episodio de peritonitis, decidiendose tratamiento empirico con teicoplanina y tobramicina.
Emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed in 85 (85%) patients diagnosed with acute abdomen clinically, peritonitis 61 (61%) and acute intestinal obstruction in 24 (24%).
Abnormalities in immunologic function also can contribute to peritonitis (Segal & Massana, 2013).
The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Peritonitis
Group 3: peritonitis + cephazolin sodium group, in which intraperitoneal cephazolin sodium injection (50 mg/kg) was made one hour after the injection of E.
Surgical treatment of bile peritonitis in 24 dogs and 2 cats: a retrospective study (1987-1994) Vet.
Assistant coroner Mary Burke, recorded a narrative verdict that his death was caused by peritonitis which was the result of recognised complications.
The ObGyn was also negligent in failing to recognize the perforation and to diagnose peritonitis in a timely manner.