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Related to peritonitis: primary peritonitis, meconium peritonitis


(pĕr'ĭtənī`tĭs), acute or chronic inflammation of the peritoneumperitoneum
, multilayered membrane which lines the abdominal cavity, and supports and covers the organs within it. The part of the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity is called the parietal peritoneum.
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, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs. It is caused by invasion of bacterial agents or irritant foreign matter during rupture of an internal organ, by spreading infection from the female genital tract, by penetrating injuries of the abdominal wall, by dissemination of infections through the blood and lymphatic channels, or by accidental pollution during surgery. Typically, peritonitis is a serious complication of another abdominal disorder, such as appendicitis, ulcers, colitis, or rupture of the gall bladder. Severe abdominal pain, vomiting, prostration, and high fever are predominant symptoms. Treatment includes antibiotic therapy and the identification and elimination of the cause of the infection.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



inflammation of the peritoneum. Peritonitis can result from a variety of diseases and traumas of the abdominal organs, including acute appendicitis, perforating gastric or duodenal ulcers, and intestinal obstructions; it can also develop from surgical complications. The causative agents are either cocci or Escherichia coli; when peritonitis is caused by the latter, for example, in perforating appendicitis or perforation of an intestinal tumor, the course of the inflammation can be very severe.

Depending on the distribution of the inflammatory process, peritonitis can be circumscribed, that is, confined to some portion of the abdominal cavity, or diffuse. The clinical picture of acute abdomen consists of the symptoms of diffuse peritonitis— namely, sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, retention of stools and gases in a condition called adynamic ileus, local or diffuse rigidity of the abdominal muscles, marked tenderness upon palpation of the anterior abdominal wall, and systemic intoxication as evidenced by fever, increased heart rate, and neutrophilic leukocytosis.

Chronic peritonitis, which is usually encountered in tuberculosis, is rare. The exudative form is attended by an accumulation of exudate in the abdominal cavity, while the adhesive form is marked by the appearance of massive adhesions. Serous, purulent, fibrocaseous, and septic peritonites are distinguished according to the type of exudate. Peritonitis is treated surgically and can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and treatment of acute abdominal conditions.


Simonian, K. S. Peritonit. Moscow, 1971.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Inflammation of the peritoneum.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


inflammation of the peritoneum
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
However, the study does show in selected patients that continuing a laparoscopic approach when peritonitis is observed is safe when compared to using local extension of the initial open incision.
* The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Peritonitis
Group 3: peritonitis + cephazolin sodium group, in which intraperitoneal cephazolin sodium injection (50 mg/kg) was made one hour after the injection of E.
Consecutive episodes of CAPD peritonitis in adult patients between January 2014 and December 2015 were included.
The present study was done to evaluate the role of diagnostic & therapeutic laparoscopic surgery in patients of perforation peritonitis and their outcome.
We planned a study to determine 3rd generation cephalosporin resistance in our patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis using early response assessment to guide treatment outcome.
Se recogieron todos los datos en una hoja de Excel y se calculo la tasa anual de peritonitis por ano en ambos periodos (numero de peritonitis en el periodo de estudio / [numero de pacientes del periodo de estudio x numero de anos del periodo de estudio]), teniendo en cuenta el tiempo desde que el paciente inicia la dialisis peritoneal en el domicilio, hasta la baja definitiva en la tecnica, descartando el tiempo de entrenamiento.
Recurrence of peritonitis was defined to occur within 4 weeks of a previous episode due to a different organism while relapsing peritonitis was due to the same organism responsible for the episode occurring within the past 4 weeks.
Though the adult worms in peritoneal cavity are reported to be non-pathogenic, primary septic and localized peritonitis of fibrinous nature was observed in our case (Fig.
The histopathologic examination of the surgical specimen was reported as "sclerosing peritonitis." The patient's postoperative period was uneventful and he was discharged on the 8th day post operation.