peritonitis


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Related to peritonitis: primary peritonitis, meconium peritonitis

peritonitis

(pĕr'ĭtənī`tĭs), acute or chronic inflammation of the peritoneumperitoneum
, multilayered membrane which lines the abdominal cavity, and supports and covers the organs within it. The part of the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity is called the parietal peritoneum.
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, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs. It is caused by invasion of bacterial agents or irritant foreign matter during rupture of an internal organ, by spreading infection from the female genital tract, by penetrating injuries of the abdominal wall, by dissemination of infections through the blood and lymphatic channels, or by accidental pollution during surgery. Typically, peritonitis is a serious complication of another abdominal disorder, such as appendicitis, ulcers, colitis, or rupture of the gall bladder. Severe abdominal pain, vomiting, prostration, and high fever are predominant symptoms. Treatment includes antibiotic therapy and the identification and elimination of the cause of the infection.

Peritonitis

 

inflammation of the peritoneum. Peritonitis can result from a variety of diseases and traumas of the abdominal organs, including acute appendicitis, perforating gastric or duodenal ulcers, and intestinal obstructions; it can also develop from surgical complications. The causative agents are either cocci or Escherichia coli; when peritonitis is caused by the latter, for example, in perforating appendicitis or perforation of an intestinal tumor, the course of the inflammation can be very severe.

Depending on the distribution of the inflammatory process, peritonitis can be circumscribed, that is, confined to some portion of the abdominal cavity, or diffuse. The clinical picture of acute abdomen consists of the symptoms of diffuse peritonitis— namely, sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, retention of stools and gases in a condition called adynamic ileus, local or diffuse rigidity of the abdominal muscles, marked tenderness upon palpation of the anterior abdominal wall, and systemic intoxication as evidenced by fever, increased heart rate, and neutrophilic leukocytosis.

Chronic peritonitis, which is usually encountered in tuberculosis, is rare. The exudative form is attended by an accumulation of exudate in the abdominal cavity, while the adhesive form is marked by the appearance of massive adhesions. Serous, purulent, fibrocaseous, and septic peritonites are distinguished according to the type of exudate. Peritonitis is treated surgically and can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and treatment of acute abdominal conditions.

REFERENCE

Simonian, K. S. Peritonit. Moscow, 1971.

R. B. KAVTELADZE

peritonitis

[‚per·ə·tə′nīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the peritoneum.

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum
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Understanding Gallibacterium-Associated Peritonitis in the Commercial Egg-Laying Industry.
Detection of feline infectious peritonitis virus-like antigen in ferrets.
5] It is a rare condition in infant boys who have had healed meconium peritonitis.
Segun las ultimas guias de tratamiento de las peritonitis, alrededor del 18% de las infecciones asociadas a mortalidad en pacientes sometidos a DP son peritonitis.
On assessment he was found to be septic with tachycardia hypotension and peritonitis on examination.
Being an endemic region, a provisional clinical diagnosis of enteric perforation with subsequent peritonitis was made and the patient was planned for urgent exploratory laparotomy by surgeons.
2-4) Spontaneous perforation with diffuse peritonitis is very rare, and the incidence is 0.
In 2003, the LHSC peritonitis infection rate was one episode in 56 patient months (1:56).
Systematic review: tuberculous peritonitis presenting features, diagnostic strategies and treatment.
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RICHARD FAHEY paid a glowing tribute yesterday to his four-time Group-race winner Utmost Respect, who has lost his fight against peritonitis, writes Rodney Masters.
Tragically Sue and husband George are now mourning Luka's death, after he developed a cancerous tumour, and suffered peritonitis.