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a subclass of protozoans of class Infusoria.

The body in Peritricha is bell-shaped. A broad oral disk bears spiral rows of cilia. Feeding is phagotrophic. Reproduction is by longitudinal fission. There are two orders, comprising more than 1,000 species. The majority are sessile (order Sessilida), either solitary (for example, Vorticella) or colonial (Zoothamnium); they attach themselves to the substrate by means of a basal disk, pedicel, or shell. A ciliate ring serves for locomotion in the motile forms (in the sessile forms it appears temporarily in the motile embryos, or zoospores). Motile Peritricha (order Mobilida) use a broad ring of grasping hooks for temporary attachment to a substrate. Peritricha inhabit both fresh waters and marine. The sessile forms live on any firm substrate, including aquatic plants and animals. The motile forms live only on animals (from coelenterates to amphibians) or their viscera. During periods of massive reproduction, Trichodina and representatives of closely related genera do damage to the integuments of their animal hosts (especially of fish fry), causing possible illness or death.


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The present study investigated the attachment to nonliving substrates of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium.
This similar pattern of settling next to conspecifics displayed by different species of invertebrate larvae was suggested to be convergent (Knight-Jones and Crisp, 1953), and might be the same utilized by telotrochs of peritrich ciliates (Langlois, 1975).
Peritrich epibionts can choose their host based on the availability of space and the access to resources (facultative), or based on chemical attraction to a specific host or group of hosts, not being able to attach to non-living substrates (obligate).
Effect of algal exudates on substratum selection by motile telotrochs of the marine peritrich ciliate Vorticella marina.
Identification, life history, and ecology of peritrich ciliates as epibionts on calanoid copepods in the Chesapeake Bay.
Epibiotic relationships involving sessile peritrichs and planktonic crustaceans are a widespread phenomenon in aquatic environments (e.
After about 2 hours following the death of the hosts, the peritrich started to form free-swimming stages that were harvested and exposed to live, clean A.
8 per day (Figures 1a and b) when exposed to diets based primarily on bacteria or Isochrysis galbana, demonstrating that this peritrich is able to grow at approximately the same rate when the main available food is bacteria or small algae.
The only other record of growth rates estimated in the laboratory for a peritrich epibiont is that of Gilbert and Schroder (2003), who observed colony development of Epistylis pygmaeum attached to Brachionus angularis.
In summary, this study analyzed the growth rates of a peritrich epibiont feeding on bacteria and small algae demonstrating that Z.
The abundance of different peritrich ciliates on stone surfaces in contrasting lowland streams throughout the year.
Colonization of non-living surfaces in streams by peritrich ciliates.