In Afghanistan the contrast between the rural and urban areas has developed into a permanent fault
* Permanent fault
: Once it appears in network it remains until it removed and repaired by some external administrator.
If the second fault is recoverable, this assumption can waste resources, since permanent fault
will require allocating the circuit to another part in the FPGA, and consider the original part as faulty and never uses it again.
Beside these studies, there are some studies on impact of both permanent fault
displacement and strong ground motions or each one individually.
In , the authors propose uDIREC, a unified framework for permanent fault
diagnosis based on the use of a deadlock free routing algorithm which helps the working links in the NoC to be maximally utilized in case of fault.
Auto Sectionaliser Link~s are non fault break single phase devices that are designed to recognise a pre-determined sequence of fault currents, to identify a permanent fault
and then during a period when the upstream protective device is open, to disengage and drop-out to the isolated position.
Differentiating the permanent fault
from the transient type and prevent reclosing when the fault is permanent.
Generally, faults made in power networks, in terms of their lasting time, are classified into three categories : Transient fault, Semi-permanent fault, Permanent fault
As far as we know, transient fault occurs more frequently than permanent fault
, and there exist some reasonable solutions to permanent fault
In case of permanent fault
it is necessary detect the faulted line fast and reliably and to clear the ground fault to prevent other faults as shown in Fig.
During the permanent fault
, autorecloser will apply the current fault to equipments and may have adverse affects on system stability.
OutageAdvisor solution provides utilities with a reliable means to locate and isolate problems on electricity delivery lines and communicate a permanent fault
event within the system.