personality theory

Personality theory

A branch of psychology concerned with developing a scientifically defensible model or view of human nature—in the modern parlance, a general theory of behavior.

Most personality theories can be classified in terms of two broad categories, depending on their underlying assumptions about human nature. On the one hand, there are a group of theories that see human nature as fixed, unchanging, deeply perverse, and self-defeating. These theories emphasize self-understanding and resignation; in the cases of Freudian psychoanalysis and existentialism, they also reflect a distinctly tragic view of life—the sources of human misery are so various that the best that can be hoped for is to control some of the causes of suffering. On the other hand, there are a group of theories that see human nature as plastic, flexible, and always capable of growth, change, and development. Human nature is basically benevolent; therefore bad societies are the source of personal misery. Social reform will produce human happiness if not actual perfection. These theories emphasize self-expression and self-actualization—in the cases of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, they reflect a distinctly optimistic and romantic view of life.

personality theory

[pər·sə′nal·əd·ē ‚thē·ə·rē]
(psychology)
A branch of psychology concerned with developing a scientifically defensible model or view of human nature.
References in periodicals archive ?
In implicit personality theory, personality is regarded as a connected network that includes all knowledge associated with self-concept and personality traits (Schleider, Abel, & Weisz, 2015).
Doctors continued to lay blame on patients with a "migraine personality" even after researchers discovered that serotonin plays a central role in migraine, and after several serious critiques appeared which described the migraine personality theory as overly broad, biased and unscientific.
For instance, according to personality theory, extroverts are confident and feel secure which tend to share more knowledge with others as compared to introverts who are more self-centered and feel insecure.
Among his topics are positive psychology, developmental and personality theory, process direction and person-activity fit, post-traumatic growth, and theoretically consistent measurement.
Personality theory is not a mere academic or theoretical interest, personality theories are the basis for clinical training programs with orientations other than that of the cognitive behavioral or behavioral paradigm.
In addition to this, Rogers' personality theory is basically focusing on the notion of self or self-concept [24].
It is the only construct of personality disorganization to date that is fully integrated with African-centered personality theory, and through that the psychological misorientation construct achieves a preeminent status to other extant conceptualizations of an ADP's distance and/or alienation from his or her own racial or ethnic group.
He helped "resurrect" personality theory in the 1980s and '90s and has made a major contribution to understanding leadership derailment.
She ends with discussion of Carl Jung's personality theory and neuroscience and how they can inform understanding of teaching and learning and serve as a framework for polarity thinking.
Horn (2000) stated that Cattell's personality theory can only be compared to Freud's theory, in terms of magnitude and scope, and to no other theory of empirical demonstration.
This article is a first attempt to face this challenge in the context of personality theory.
Readers get an abbreviated tour of personality theory beginning with Hippocrates' four temperaments and rapidly proceeding to Cattell's sweet 16, the Big Five, and the final four factor model from Robert Hare's revision of the well-known Hare Psychopathy Checklist.