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(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The escape of blood from the vascular system.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Petechial hemorrhages over external body parts were found in 11.88% cases.
(17) Similarly, the occurrence of petechial hemorrhages in the proventriculus and ventriculus are common findings in poultry affected with ND, but this finding has been very seldom described in falcons.
The dead embryos showed swollen livers with petechial hemorrhages. Spherical, spiked virus particles, consistent with those of members of the family Reoviridae, were observed by electron microscopy.
Subserosal petechial hemorrhages throughout the body and blood-tinged fluid in thoracic and abdominal cavities were seen.
At this ER visit, he had a II/VI holosystolic murmur, subconjunctival petechial hemorrhages, and bibasilar crackles.
However, this clinical material allows only the tentative conclusion that the changes are the direct effect of primary blast injuries, because multifocal petechial hemorrhages in white matter can result from secondary and tertiary injuries, carbon monoxide intoxication, and air and fat emboli.
Cystoscopy indicated multiple areas of petechial hemorrhages when her bladder was filled.
Bleeding disorders such as anemia and petechial hemorrhages may be seen.
Also, petechial hemorrhages caused inadvertently by trauma to the peritoneal layer during laparoscopy can be mistaken for endometriosis, but under NBI it is clear that there is no change in the vascular pattern.
No significant differences were seen in the frequency of any TPA hemorrhagic complication except for the presence of asymptomatic petechial hemorrhages in the zone of infarction on 24-hour CT scans.
The Department of Forensic Medicine and Sciences at the University performed the autopsy of the deceased worker and discovered a cherry-red discoloration on the man's back, bruises on the temporal area and left forearm, multiple petechial hemorrhages on the pericardium and lung surfaces, and severe edema and congestion in both lungs.