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any ancient representation on the walls or ceilings of caves, on exposed cliff surfaces, or on individual rocks. Petroglyphs are known throughout the world and date from various times from the Paleolithic Period to the Middle Ages.

Paleolithic petroglyphs can be seen in the caves and grottoes of southern France (Les Combarelles, Montespan, Lascaux) and northern Spain (Altamira, Castillo). Most often depicted were animals of the hunt, including the bison, horse, mammoth, and rhinoceros; beasts of prey, such as the bear and the cave lion, were less frequently represented. In the USSR, Paleolithic petroglyphs have been discovered in Kapova Cave in the Urals and on the cliffs near the village of Shishkino on the Lena River. Geometric drawings have been found in the Mgvimevi grottoes in the Caucasus.

Most scholars agree that petroglyphs had a magical significance. The representations were made in diverse styles and by various techniques. They range from contours delineated by a monochromatic line to bas-reliefs and polychromatic paintings done with mineral pigments. Petroglyphs became widespread in the late Paleolithic, in the Mesolithic, and, especially, in the Neolithic. Paintings found in eastern Spain, southern Italy, northern Africa (Tassili-n-Ajjer), the central and eastern Sahara, and southern and eastern Africa consist mainly of intricate hunting, war, and religious scenes. Particularly distinctive are the petroglyphs of Neolithic hunting and fishing tribes of the north (in northern Scandinavia, in Karelia, and in Eastern Siberia);

dynamic hunting scenes and representations with a mythological meaning were engraved or painted with ocher on granite cliffs.

Petroglyphs developed further and became even more widespread during the Bronze Age and, especially, the early Iron Age. Examples from this period exist in many countries. In the USSR, they are found in the northern European part and in Siberia (on the Enisei and Lena rivers), Tuva, the Caucasus, the Crimea, the Far East, and Middle Asia. Sometimes, hundreds and thousands of pictures, often dating from different epochs, cover entire rock surfaces; often, ancient drawings are covered with more recent ones (for example, Kobustan in the Azerbaijan SSR, the Pisannaia Mountain in Khakasia, Kobdo-Somon in Mongolia). During this period, in addition to representations of wild animals, hunting scenes, magical symbols, and other images typical of other epochs, there are depictions of domestic animals, dwellings, entire settlements, religious rites, boats with rowers, the hoeing of land, battles, and plundering raids.

Petroglyphs reflect in artistic form the economic and spiritual life of a people during a particular era. They constitute a very important historical source.


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References in periodicals archive ?
"The Kirthar Mountain Range, which separates Sindh from Balochistan, is rich in ancient petroglyphs.' Thus anthropologist Zulfiqar Ali Kalhoro opens his latest book Symbols in Stone: The Rock Art of Sindh.
Summary: Fujairah [UAE], Oct 09 (ANI): As part of archaeological studies conducted throughout the United Arab Emirates (UAE) over the last six decades, numerous examples of petroglyphs (rock art) have now been identified and studied.
Fujairah: As part of archaeological studies throughout the UAE over the last six decades, numerous examples of petroglyphs (rock art) have now been identified and studied.
The presence of petroglyphs (rock art) in the mountains of the United Arab Emirates has been well documented, with several publications in academic journals, the most comprehensive lists having been recorded by Dr.
According to Benson, a white layer of carbonate made of limestone precipitated from the ancient, overflowing Winnemucca Lake had coated some of the petroglyph carvings near the base of the boulders.
"Susan brings a unique way of linking the Yoncalla (petroglyph) markings with her work and with her personal background and the Kalapuyas," he said.
And although Petroglyph was a 20-1 shot, his success may have been pre-destined as Butler, 39, recalls: "It was only when I was sitting down reading the Racing Post in Birmingham just before 1.30pm on Monday that I saw that the name of the race at Wetherby was Yorkshire Post Ladies Day - 24th May Handicap Chase."
It is believed many of the petroglyphs were carved after receiving these visions and have some spiritual connection, much like a monument to a particular dream.
The relatively tight association between Aguas Buenas Period occupation and the boundaries of the petroglyph core suggest that the petroglyphs themselves likely date to the Aguas Buenas Period.
ROCKAVON (of the Sunday Mail) Today's nap: I'MONCLOUDNINE (2.20 Fakenham) KLONDYKE PETROGLYPH (1.50 Fakenham) TONGALOOMA (2.40 Wolverhampton) FOREVER'S GIRL (5.40 Wolverhampton) POT LUCK Fakenham placepot 12.50 -5; 1.20 -1, 6; 1.50 -4, 6; 2.20 -4, 6; 2.50 -6; 3.20 -2.
Petroglyph is not the most compliant of fellows, but should still raise his game at Fakenham in the Northern Norfolk Simply Outstanding Handicap Hurdle.
Over 20 years ago Steve Brown wrote about a specific form of petroglyph, stating; "that the motif represents a now extinct species of macropod ....