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branch of geology specifically concerned with the origin, composition, structure, and properties of rocksrock,
aggregation of solid matter composed of one or more of the minerals forming the earth's crust. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology. Rocks are commonly divided, according to their origin, into three major classes—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
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, primarily igneous and metamorphic, and secondarily sedimentary. It includes petrography, the systematic description and classification of rocks using microscopic examination of rock in thin sections; and petrogenesis, which deals with the origin and formation of the various kinds of rock. Petrology is also concerned with the laboratory simulation of rock-forming processes and the application of principles of physical chemistry to natural environments. Petrologic analyses of oceanic rocks have given insights into plate tectonicplate tectonics,
theory that unifies many of the features and characteristics of continental drift and seafloor spreading into a coherent model and has revolutionized geologists' understanding of continents, ocean basins, mountains, and earth history.
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 processes, especially rock from mid-oceanic ridges, which may be formed from magma derived from deep in the mantlemantle,
portion of the earth's interior lying beneath the crust and above the core. No direct observation of the mantle, or its upper boundary, has been made; its boundaries have been determined solely by abrupt changes in the velocities and character of seismic waves passing
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. Lunar rocks returned by Apollo astronauts were studied with petrographic techniques providing a wealth of information on the makeup and origin of the moon.



the science of rocks. In the USSR, some scientists—for example, F. Iu. Levinson-Lessing and D. S. Beliankin —regard “petrology” and “petrography” as synonyms. According to others, such as A. N. Zavaritskii, petrography deals with just the description of rocks, while petrology is concerned with genetic problems and theoretical constructions based on petrographic descriptions and experimental research.


The branch of geology concerned with the origin, occurrence, structure, and history of rocks, principally igneous and metamorphic rock.
References in periodicals archive ?
One of these unrelated gabbros is a pristine haplogabbro (HDG) of unknown age or origin, other than it was sold as tiles by Home Depot[TM] in about 2011, and the other is from 380 Ma Atwoods Brook gabbro pluton (ABG) in Nova Scotia (Tate and Clarke 1995), which is petrologically similar to the Titanic headstones.
Plain Tin-enamelled Ware is typologically indistinct from Panama Plain (Deagan 1987: 92; Rovira 2001) and petrologically a New World source is expected.
2004), constraining the emplacement age of the sills to the Mesozoic; 3) in the Moncayo sector the conglomerates of the upper part of the Keuper facies include clasts of igneous rocks petrologically equivalent to the sills emplaced in the middle part of the Keuper facies (Lago et al.
Shoshonites, boninites and adakites are volumetrically small, but are nonetheless petrologically significant igneous rocks that form in specialized arc environments.
Careful in situ microsampling of petrologically defined domains is used to isolate material that attained equilibrium at different times.
In this paper, we selected key samples from the Cumberland Hill Formation in order to petrologically and geochemically characterize the rocks and compare the rhyolite and trachyte to similar rocks elsewhere in the Maritimes Basin.
This is the origin of the petrologically incorrect name of alabaster, which actually refers to a fine-grained variety of gypsum.
2003) is chemically and petrologically similar to the Hawkshaw granite of the Pokiok Batholith, although there are some mineralogical differences (Yang et al.
The Monte Capanne pluton is the largest of the exposed TMP plutons and the most extensively studied petrologically (Bussy 1990; Dini et at 2002; Marinelli 1955; Marinelli 1959; Poll 1992; Poli et al.