peyotism


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peyotism,

religion of some Native North Americans in which the hallucinogenic peyotepeyote
, spineless cactus (Lophophora williamsii), ingested by indigenous people in Mexico and the United States to produce visions. The plant is native to the SW United States, particularly S Texas, and Mexico, where it grows in dry soil.
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 button is used as the sacramental food. It is the most widespread indigenous contemporary Native American religion. Peyotism teaches an ethical doctrine much like those of the monotheistic religions. However, it eschews specific Christian theology, its exponents often stating that while Christ came to the whites, peyote came to the Native Americans. The peyote rite lasts from sunset to sunrise and is usually held in a Plains-type tepee. The rite has four major elements: prayer, singing, eating the sacramental peyote, and contemplation. The religion probably originated among the Kiowa in Oklahoma about 1890 and reflects the influence of traditional peyote use among Mesoamerican groups such as the Huichol. In 1918 many peyotists were brought together as the Native American ChurchNative American Church,
Native American religious group whose beliefs blend fundamentalist Christian elements with pan–Native American moral principles. The movement began among the Kiowa about 1890 and, led by John Wilson (Big Moon), soon spread to other tribes.
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Ultimately, they championed peyotism as a spiritual practice that they believed held distinct cultural benefits.
In hindsight it seems inevitable that peyote would become a contentious issue, especially since Parker was involved with various organizations that were part of the assault on Peyotism.
6) A photograph and six paragraphs in the 1987 book Peyote Religion by Omer Stewart briefly mention this historic event in the chapter on how Peyotism was suppressed.
From these visits he wrote two major ethnological works in 1951 and 1952: one on the Native American Church, entitled Menomini Peyotism, and one on the Dream Dance or Drum Dance, or Menominee Powwow, which he subtitled A Study in Cultural Decay.
In chapter 10 the history is continued to 1906, detailing the replacement of traditional Osage religion with the somewhat compatible Big Moon Peyotism.
Many aspects of nineteenth-century Osage religion were waning by 1910, replaced by peyotism.
In chapter 7, Hittman reaches back to include Mack's descriptions of Wodziwob and Wovoka as a springboard for discussing the emergence and rejection of peyotism, and the persistent belief in and fear of witchcraft among Paiutes in the twentieth century.
It appears that the Ghost Dance was developing into a syncretic religion that blended together elements from Christianity, peyotism, and indigenous tribal beliefs.
Some authors even have suggested that powwows represent the "secular sphere," and peyotism the "religious sphere" of the so-called pan-Indian movement (Howard 1983:71; see Howard 1955:218; Hirabayashi et al.
Though they figured prominently in the development of peyotism, this was a transformed Mexican rite and a crisis cult, not in itself a sufficient diagnostic of classic Plains culture.
As Aberle writes, peyotism appeals to "the disorganized and unhappy, to the alienated and marginal, to the philosopher, to the mystic, and to the person who seeks guidance and a sense of purpose and sustaining motive" (p.