"The Incorporation of the Indian Body: Peyotism
and the Pan-Indian Public, 1911-1913." In Swearingen and Pruett 1999, 147-54.
Ultimately, they championed peyotism
as a spiritual practice that they believed held distinct cultural benefits.
In hindsight it seems inevitable that peyote would become a contentious issue, especially since Parker was involved with various organizations that were part of the assault on Peyotism
. For example, he corresponded with Samuel Brosius, attorney for the Indian Rights Association (IRA), who was lobbying Congress to criminalize the possession of peyote.
Even though Sidney Slotkin in his 1956 book, The Peyote Religion, details many of the legal and political events in defense of Peyotism
, there is no mention of these hearings at the formation of the state of Oklahoma.
They did not share a religion, as a host of Christian churches--Episcopal, Catholic, Mission Alliance, to name only a few--had been around for over a generation and functioned alongside (and usually in opposition to) traditional ceremonial institutions like the Midewiwin and pan-Indian practices such as peyotism
and the sweat lodge.
From these visits he wrote two major ethnological works in 1951 and 1952: one on the Native American Church, entitled Menomini Peyotism
, and one on the Dream Dance or Drum Dance, or Menominee Powwow, which he subtitled A Study in Cultural Decay.
In chapter 10 the history is continued to 1906, detailing the replacement of traditional Osage religion with the somewhat compatible Big Moon Peyotism
Many aspects of nineteenth-century Osage religion were waning by 1910, replaced by peyotism
. But enough former priests still lived who were willing to share their knowledge with LaFlesche.
In chapter 7, Hittman reaches back to include Mack's descriptions of Wodziwob and Wovoka as a springboard for discussing the emergence and rejection of peyotism
, and the persistent belief in and fear of witchcraft among Paiutes in the twentieth century.
It appears that the Ghost Dance was developing into a syncretic religion that blended together elements from Christianity, peyotism
, and indigenous tribal beliefs.
Some authors even have suggested that powwows represent the "secular sphere," and peyotism
the "religious sphere" of the so-called pan-Indian movement (Howard 1983:71; see Howard 1955:218; Hirabayashi et al.