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1. a former German monetary unit worth one hundredth of a Deutschmark
2. (formerly) a monetary unit worth one hundredth of an East German ostmark
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a German coin used for small change; it first appeared during the eighth century.

After the introduction of the mark as the standard monetary unit of Germany in 1871, the pfennig was equal to 1/100 of a mark. It was minted of silver, bronze, and nickel. With the proclamation of the reichsmark as the monetary unit in 1924, the pfennig acquired the name “reichspfennig”; it was minted of bronze. In 1948, after a separate monetary reform in West Germany and a monetary reform in East Germany in response, all the old pfennigs were taken out of circulation. New pfennigs were turned out that were equal, respectively, to 1/100 of the mark of the German Democratic Republic and were minted of aluminum and to 1/100 of the mark of the Federal Republic of Germany and were minted of copper and iron.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Sacha with new wife Isla Fisher Sacha poses as Borat The comic's nanny Ruth Pfennig near her home in LA yesterday
Specifically, as illustrated in Lannoo and Bachmann (1984), larvae were scored as cannibals based on their enlarged vomerine ridge and elongate teeth (see also Pfennig et al.
Eggs hatch within 42 h, and tadpoles can metamorphose as soon as 12 to 16 days later (Pfennig 1992a).
The ability to distinguish kin from strangers can be quite keen, as Pfennig discovered during research on tiger salamanders that live on both sides of Arizona's Grand Canyon.
They thought the female vocalist was about to sing the Dutch anthem but when the pfennig finally dropped they joined in with great gusto.
Sphecius females provision underground nests with paralyzed cicadas upon which they lay their eggs (Dow, 1942; Dambach and Good, 1943; Evans, 1966; Pfennig and Reeve, 1989).
The costs of the whole scheme will, in the final analysis, be borne by the consumer, who on average must pay a sum of two Pfennig per package (that is just under one cent).
However, the Sarajevo Gas, East Sarajevo stressed that they have proposed a compromise solution in the form of a protocol for the purpose of overcoming the problem, which foresees an increase in transport costs by 2 KM/1,000 m3, which would represent an increase in gas price by 0.2 pfennig per cubic meter for the end consumer.
Perhaps the most dramatic example comes from studies of cannibalistic tadpoles by David Pfennig at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill.
Pfennig of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and her colleagues in the June BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY.