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type, for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere. Movable type made from metal molds was developed in Korea as early as the beginning of the 13th cent. However, there is no evidence that the European invention of movable type attributed to Johann Gutenberg was influenced by Eastern developments. The first dated printing from movable type in Europe is a papal indulgence, printed at Mainz in 1454. The first dated book printed from movable type was a psalter printed by Fust and Schöffer on the Gutenberg press at Mainz in 1457. Gutenberg's Mazarin Bible, completed at Mainz not later than 1455, is believed to be the first book printed in Europe from movable type. The type used in these beginnings of European printing was of the kind known as black letter or Gothic, represented now by such types as Old English and German. The forms of the letters were derived from popular handwriting styles.

Other styles suggested the letter forms of roman and italic type. Roman type was used by several printers before Nicolas Jenson so improved it as to ensure its triumph as the standard type. Italic type was first used by Aldus Manutius, who also introduced small capitals. Roman type is of two basic sorts, old style and modern. The modern type emphasizes the contrast between light and heavy lines and has conspicuous level serifs; the old style type keeps its lines of nearly the same weight and has inconspicuous serifs, some of them sloping. Qualities of old style and modern types are often combined. Into the mid-20th cent. type characters were usually made by pouring metal into previously cut matrices and, less frequently, by processes using plastics and other synthetic materials. Computerization of type design and photomechanical printing techniques have almost entirely replaced metal type. By the early years of the 21st cent. the computer had made the design of new styles of type, once an arduous task, a relatively simple process. Tens of thousands of type fonts are now in existence, and new styles of type are created on a nearly daily basis.

Famous designers of types include, in addition to those named above, Geofroy Tory, Claude Garamond, Robert Granjon, Christopher van Dyck, William Caslon, John Baskerville, Giambattista Bodoni, François Ambroise Didot, William Morris, Bruce Rogers, F. W. Goudy, and the contemporary American Matthew Carter.

See also typography.


See F. W. Goudy, Alphabet and Elements of Lettering (repr. 1922); H. Lehmann-Haupt, One Hundred Books about Bookmaking (1949); J. R. Biggs, An Approach to Type (2d ed. 1962); S. Carter, Twentieth-century Type Designers (1987); A. S. Lawson with D. Agner, Printing Types (rev. and expanded ed. 1990); W. P. Jaspert et al., Encyclopaedia of Type Faces (5th ed. 2001); D. B. Updike, Printing Types (4th ed. 2001); P. Baines and A. Haslam, Type and Typography (2002); M. Bierut, Seventy-nine Essays on Design (2007); J. Tholenaar and A. W. Purvis, Type: A Visual History of Typefaces and Graphic Styles (2009). See also bibliography under typography.

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any abstract or conceptual class or category which may or may not be seen as capable of straightforward empirical reference. Compare IDEAL TYPE. See also TYPOLOGY, TYPIFICATION.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a rectangular piece of metal, plastic, or wood with a raised image of a letter or character on one side. The raised or recessed image serves to reproduce letters and characters by printing, in which the face is covered with ink and an impression is made on paper. Metal type is the most common; it is cast from printing alloy. The parts of a piece of type (see Figure 1) are the body (a), beard (b), and face (c); the dimensions of the type are defined by the point size (d), width (e), and height to paper (f). The last dimension is constant for all kinds of type.

Figure 1



an element with which a particular taxon is always associated. The type of a species or an intraspecific taxon is usually a single specimen of a plant or animal or, less commonly, several specimens viewed together on one herbarium sheet or in one laboratory preparation. Sometimes a drawing serves as a type. The type of the plant species Companula aldanensis is a specimen collected by the Russian botanist V. S. Korzhevin on Aug. 6, 1928, on the bank of the Aldan River in Siberia; the specimen is preserved in Leningrad at the herbarium of the V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

The term “type” is also used as a designation for a lower taxonomic category that is selected as a standard of reference for a higher category. The type of a genus or of a taxon between a genus or species (for example, a subgenus or section) is a particular species. For example, the species Campanula latifolia is the type of the genus Campanula. The type of family or of a taxon between a family and a genus (for example, a tribe or subfamily) is a particular genus. For example, the type genus of the family Campanulaceae is Campanula, a genus established by C. Linnaeus. Taxa higher than a family do not have types.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(graphic arts)
The relief or plane characters used to generate printed characters of various styles and sizes.
A specimen on which a species or subspecies is based.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


i. In relation to the licensing of aviation personnel, it means all aircraft of the same basic design, including all modifications, except those resulting in a significant change in handling or flight characteristics.
ii. In relation to the certification of aircraft, aircraft engines, or propellers, it means those aircraft, aircraft engines, or propellers that are similar in design.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


1. Biology
a. the taxonomic group the characteristics of which are used for defining the next highest group, for example Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) is the type species of the rat genus Rattus
b. (as modifier): a type genus
2. Logic a class of expressions or of the entities they represent that can all enter into the same syntactic relations. The theory of types was advanced by Bertrand Russell to avoid the liar paradox, Russell's paradox, etc.
3. Philosophy a universal. If a sentence always has the same meaning whenever it is used, the meaning is said to be a property of the sentence-type
4. Chiefly Christian theol a figure, episode, or symbolic factor resembling some future reality in such a way as to foreshadow or prefigure it
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(theory, programming)
(Or "data type") A set of values from which a variable, constant, function, or other expression may take its value. A type is a classification of data that tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use it. For example, the process and result of adding two variables differs greatly according to whether they are integers, floating point numbers, or strings.

Types supported by most programming languages include integers (usually limited to some range so they will fit in one word of storage), Booleans, floating point numbers, and characters. Strings are also common, and are represented as lists of characters in some languages.

If s and t are types, then so is s -> t, the type of functions from s to t; that is, give them a term of type s, functions of type s -> t will return a term of type t.

Some types are primitive - built-in to the language, with no visible internal structure - e.g. Boolean; others are composite - constructed from one or more other types (of either kind) - e.g. lists, arrays, structures, unions. Object-oriented programming extends this with classes which encapsulate both the structure of a type and the operations that can be performed on it.

Some languages provide strong typing, others allow implicit type conversion and/or explicit type conversion.
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)


(1) A category of data. See data type.

(2) To press the keys on a keyboard.

Try Typing on These Keys!
This "portable" typewriter was created by George Blickensderfer in 1893. (Equipment courtesy of Dorothy Hearn.)

(3) An internal DOS/Windows command that displays the contents of text and batch files as in the following examples:
type abc.txt          entire contents

  type abc.txt | more   per screenful

The vertical bar is a "pipe" and MORE is a "filter." A pipe passes output from one function to another. Thus, you are piping the output of the Type command to the MORE filter, which pauses after receiving a screenful of data and waits for a key to be pressed. See filters and pipes.

Weird Characters on Screen?

The Type command is for viewing .TXT, .BAT and .CMD files that are regular text. If you use Type with an .EXE, .SYS or other binary file, a strange combination of characters will be displayed along with beeps and erratic motion (see below). Binary files coincidentally trigger sounds and screen functions because their formats randomly match the first 32 characters in the ASCII table, which are control codes (see ASCII chart). See binary file.

Using Type on a Binary File
If the Type command is used to display a non-text file, these are the results.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Serotype and phage type distribution of Salmonella strains isolated from humans, cattle, pigs, and chickens in The Netherlands from 1984 to 2001.
Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 from the contents of intact eggs: a study involving naturally infected hens.
They further observed variation in bacterial isolation of different phage type tested.
This mode of transmission is plausible because 1) the materials used in the clean-up of the spill were processed in room A before disposal, 2) the phage type of SE among four ill employees (type 8) was the same as that of the stock culture involved in the spill and different from that of the seven isolates from other SE cases (type 13A) reported in Maine during the same approximate period, 3) a strong epidemiologic association was determined between illness and working in room A, and 4) inadequate handwashing practices and lack of PPE were noted in room A.
Recent examples include outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 14b in 2009 (16), S.
Natural of raw almonds and an outbreak of a rare phage type of Salmonella Enteriridis infection.
Java from playground sand with the same phage type, MLVA pattern, and antibiogram as that of human isolates supported the hypothesis that ingestion of sand from playgrounds was the human exposure pathway for this outbreak.
cholerae O1 strains on the basis of new phage typing scheme (32) showed phage type 27 (90.6%) to be the most common type in Delhi (5) which was also known to be the commonest type in the country except new phage types (4,16 and 25) encountered in this study (Table III).
Phage type 2 was the most common SE strain isolated in the South Carolina outbreak.
For example, the media have already revealed that the phage type 4 epidemic strain of S.
Phage type Basu Mukherjee [T.sub.2] and New Scheme [T.sub.27] were seen predominantly, apart from this [T.sub.24], [T.sub.21], [T.sub.13] were also seen in less numbers.
enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates belong to phage type (PT) 42, in contrast with CNM4839/03, which belongs to PT14b (Table 2).