typing

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typing

(1) To input data to a typewriter or computer by pressing the keys on the keyboard.

(2) In programming, classifying variables by the kind of data they hold (string, integer, floating point, etc.). Strongly typed languages enforce strict adherence to typing and do not allow data types to be mixed in the same variable. Weakly typed languages provide minimal validation, which can result in processing errors.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Typing

 

typewriting and reproduction of text, tabular, and numerical materials by means of a typewriter.

The ten-finger touch system is the generally used method of typing. The text of the original is typed by touch without the operator’s looking at his or her fingers, each of which operates only certain keys (letters, signs) of the typewriter. Two widely known systems of teaching typing are used: the professional, based on special touch exercises, beginning with the middle row of the keyboard (this system is used in typing courses), and the public, in which instruction begins with the copying of a simple text using visual verification in the early stages of finger movements on the keyboard. Average typing speed for individuals who have completed courses is 250 strokes a minute (about ten typewritten pages per hour).

REFERENCES

Dmitrevskaia, E. L, and N. N. Dmitrevskii. Uchebnik mashinopisi. Moscow, 1953.
Berezin, B. I. SamouchiteV mashinopisi, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1969.
Makarova, N. V. 50 urokov mashinopisi. [Moscow] 1971.
Sobolevskaia, V. V. Uchebnoe posobie po inostrannoi mashinopisi dlia rabotnikov televideniia i radioveshchaniia. Moscow, 1972. Demacheva, lu. S., and A. N. Kuznetsova. Mashinopis’ Moscow, 1972.

B. I. BEREZIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
aureus isolates, (A) TEM shown different phage typing for S.
Finally, because of the clonal nature of SE, PFGE testing and phage typing alone might not be able to provide definitive strain discrimination; additional typing methods might be required (5).
The authors are grateful to National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India for the phage typing of V.
Sarkar, Scientist, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Disease Kolkata for phage typing and confirmation of vibrios isolates.
cholerae isolated from both the outbreaks were included for phage typing study.
In resource limited countries like India, still phage typing remains the major tool for epidemiological analysis.
Phage typing: Few select K cholerae O1 isolates were sent for confirmation to the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED), Kolkata, where phage typing was done by the Vibrio Phage Reference Laboratory as per procedures published earlier.
By using Vi-phage typing according to the International Federation for Enteric Phage Typing (L.R.
Phage typing and biotyping were done at the National Salmonella Phage Typing Centre, Department of Microbiology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi.
In addition, molecular subtyping of isolates from both states by PFGE and phage typing at CDC demonstrated that these outbreaks were linked by a common strain, corroborating the epidemiologic and traceback findings.
The phenotypic tests, including antimicrobial-drug resistance profiles and phage typing, are usually considered very stable and therefore often used for surveillance of S.