phalanx

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phalanx,

ancient Greek formation of infantry. The soldiers were arrayed in rows (8 or 16), with arms at the ready, making a solid block that could sweep bristling through the more dispersed ranks of the enemy. Originally employed by the Spartans, it was developed by Epaminondas of Thebes (d. 362 B.C.). Use of the phalanx reached its apex when Philip II and Alexander the Great used the great Macedonian phalanx (16 deep and armed with the sarissa, a spear c.13 ft/4 m long) to conquer all Greece and the Middle East. Later, the Macedonian phalanx deteriorated and had few Macedonians in it; it was defeated in several battles with the Romans who conquered (168 B.C.) the Macedonians at Pydna. Thereafter the phalanx was obsolete. Because it lacked tactical flexilibity, the phalanx was a better defensive than offensive formation.

Phalanx

 

in anatomy, one of the small tubular bones of the fingers and toes in vertebrates. The structure of the digits in an animal is closely related to the animal’s way of life.

A convenient way of expressing the number of phalanges in the digits is provided by what is called the phalangeal formula, which gives the number of phalanges in each digit, beginning with the first. For the tailed amphibians and for the ancient terrestrial vertebrates known as the Stegocephalia, the number of phalanges in the first through fourth digits of the forelimbs is expressed by the formula 2.2.3.2; for the forelimbs of most tailless amphibians, the formula is 2.2.3.3. The hind limbs of the Stegocephalia and tailless amphibians are characterized by the formula 2.2.3.4.3, and the hind limbs of the tailed amphibians by the formula 2(1).2.3.3.2.

Reptiles have a greater number of phalanges, ordinarily 2.3.4.5.3(4), in both the anterior and posterior extremities; among turtles the number may drop to 1 or 2 per digit. The extinct ichthyosaurs had as many as several dozen phalanges; this hyperphalangia increased the flexibility of the extremity that had been transformed into a fin. In birds the forelimb was transformed into a wing and retained only three digits—the second through fourth. The third digit has two or three phalanges; the second and fourth usually have one rudimentary phalanx each.

Among mammals five digits are most frequently found on both anterior and posterior extremities, and the phalangeal formula is 2.3.3.3.3. The flippers of aquatic mammals (Cetacea) exhibit hyperphalangia. Among flying mammals (Chiroptera) the second through fifth digits are elongated and webbed for flying. The phalanges of the digits of climbing mammals are broadened and are convex on the back side of the extremity and concave on the palm side.

In man each finger and toe, except the thumb and big toe, consists of three phalanges: the proximal, middle, and terminal, or ungual. The thumb and big toe have two phalanges. The proximal phalanges are connected with the heads of the metacarpal bones (in the hand) and the metatarsal bones (in the foot) by means of ball-and-socket joints. The phalanges are connected to each other by hinge joints, which allow the digits to bend and unbend.

N. S. LEBEDKINA


Phalanx

 

a close line formation of the Greek infantry (hoplites) in battle. A phalanx was deployed along the front in eight to 16 ranks, sometimes as many as 25. When a rank comprised 1,000 men, the phalanx could extend for 500 m. It was used as early as the Trojan War but assumed its final form in the sixth century B.C. The formation was refined by Philip II of Mace-don, who added peltasts (seePELTASTS) and cavalry. The large Macedonian phalanx contained 16,384 hoplites, 8,192 peltasts, and 4,096 cavalry.

The main subdivisions of the phalanx were the lochus, consisting of one rank of 16 hoplites, the syntagma, comprising 16 lochi, and the small phalanx, comprising 16 syntagmas. A given maneuver could be executed using combinations of the various subdivisions. The battle formation could also assume various forms, including a square, an echelon unit, or pincers. The phalanx was best suited to frontal attack by hoplites armed with the sarissa, a long pike. The tactical phalanx operated as a single unit and struck with considerable force in a frontal assault. It was relatively immobile, however, and in motion its ranks quickly became disorganized. The formation was used in ancient Rome until the introduction of the maniple in the late fourth century B.C., as well as in later Rome in wars against the barbarians.

phalanx

[′fā‚laŋks]
(anatomy)
One of the bones of the fingers or toes.

phalanx

1. (in Fourierism) a group of approximately 1800 persons forming a commune in which all property is collectively owned
2. Anatomy any of the bones of the fingers or toes
3. Botany
a. a bundle of stamens, joined together by their stalks (filaments)
b. a form of vegetative spread in which the advance is on a broad front, as in the common reed.
References in periodicals archive ?
Phal chen section and nine volumes of Shesphyin section of Ulan Bator were from an earlier edition prior to 1717-20 edition, most probably that of 1682-1698.
7: bkas bcad la'ang dang po dang / bar pa tham gsum mi 'thun // chos sgyur ba na lo pan dang rgyal blon dang brda la mkhas pa rnam 'dus te / yul tha dad na ming du ma yod kyang 'di'i ming ni 'dir 'thad do zhes bcad pa ni bka' bcad de / de la yang gsum te / mthon mi sambho ta dang btsad po khri srong lde btsan gyi dus kyi dang po byas pa'i 'gyur rnams ni dang por byas pa'i bkas bcad kyis bsgyur te / sangs rgyas phal po che dang / lung sde bzhi dang mdo sde kha cig dang / sher phyin gyi mdo kha cig ste skad gsar bad kyi bstan la ma phab pa rnams so // .
b) Thonmi Sambhota (Tms) endeavoured to systematize [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] gzhung skad, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] chos skad out of multiple dialects [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] phal skad.
Norng Chan Phal, now 39, was one of only a handful of children who survived their ordeal at the S-21 torture center, also known as Tuol Sleng prison, where at least 12,380 people were taken, interrogated and later killed under the command of Kaing Guek Eav, alias Duch, who is currently on trial for crimes against humanity.
Unfortunately, if the diner is not attuned to the highly-spiced quality of large amounts of red hot chillies used in its preparation, he or she may not properly appreciate the inner glow to be obtained from consuming a mouthful or two of a Phal that can produce steam from the ears, activate tear ducts to flood level, cause a flushing of the features vivid enough to halt traffic and leave him with a strange compulsion never to stray far from a lavatory.
At the meeting, immigration chief Sok Phal said the system would be similar to the green cards afforded to immigrants in countries like the US or Canada.
LWSS Jiana Sukrala, LWSS Phal Kotlu & Daswin Tihari & LWSS Galore Budhwin & Raj Khas under IPH section Galore 2nd in Tehsil Nadaun Distt.
bar du, p,543,3] de'i dus su rgyal po phal che ba la/phyi blon nang blon bar gyi phrin blon dang gsum las med las/khri srong mnga' thang rgyas pas/phyi blon bcu nang blon bcu phrin blon bcu yod pas/dus der bod kyi stag gzig nor gyi rgyal po btul te/ tshong lam mtha' bzhi che/rong shing ring gi zam par khas blangs/phrom ge sar dmag gi rgyal po btul/gnyen lam mtha'bzhi khas blangs/rgya gar chos kyi rgyal po btul/yon mchod du mkhas blangs/ [551.
The two-mile contest was won by Phal, the 9-2 second favourite.
Provincial court spokesman Meas Bros said that Phal Penh, the chief of the O'Rolear border post and a part of border police Unit 621, and Keut Veha, the head of Royal Cambodian Armed Forces Regiment 103, were charged under Article 200 of the Criminal Code and Article 20 of the Arms Control Law.
Tenders are invited for Leveling work of thok phal /sabji Market in ward no.
Ho Van Tay, 76, who arrived in Cambodia on Saturday ahead of a pre-trial hearing for the former prison chief, met Sunday with survivor Norng Chan Phal, 39, for the first time in three decades.