Algae and marine phanerogams are eaten by sea urchins, some species of fish, some gastropod and polyplacophoran molluscs, and some crustaceans.
In sandy seafloors not colonized by marine phanerogams nor by green (chlorophycean) algae, unicellular algae develop that play no structural role and are consumed by sediment-eaters.
This might occur by the fixation of sediment by meadows of marine phanerogams, the building of organogenic structures by the accumulation of carbonated algae that live free in sedimentary seafloor, or (at least partially) by the creation of a hard substrate by the hermatypic corals and carbonated algae of coral reefs.
The growth of seaweeds and marine phanerogams is often determined by their capacity to assimilate nutrients, and their seasonal cycle often reflects variations in the water's nutrient concentration.
A list of Pantanal plants, as a result of a 10 year period of field work, offering information on identification, distribution and use reached 1,863 Phanerogams
species (Pott and Pott, 1994).
The spores of cryptogams and the pollen of phanerogams
form a special case among fossilized remains.
Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Pb, and Zn in four marine phanerogams
and the alga Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux from the east coast of Spain.
At first reduced to the chance collection of fruits and other edible elements, just like any other secondary producers (phytophagous or vegetarian animals), humans learned how to make use of the reproductive mechanisms of phanerogams
The greater part of the surface area is permanently covered with ice and only in some marginal lands which thaw during summer do we find mosses, lichens, terrestrial algae and no more than three species of phanerogams
A supplement to the pteridophytes and phanerogams
of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island.
Comparative anatomy of the vegetative organs of the phanerogams
Vertical distribution of salt marsh phanerogams
in relation to tide levels.