Stendahl's reading of Paul has implications for how we understand Pharisaic
Judaism, although he did not himself develop them.
Alan Segal's Paul the Convert pushes back against the dominant new perspective readers of Paul, arguing that Saul the Pharisee did in fact become an apostate through conversion, albeit a gradual one, and that his "positive statements about Torah and Judaism" are "remnants of the apostle's former Pharisaic
Quick's narrow focus portrayed Jesus as an orthodox Pharisaic
rabbi, exhorting us to live rigidly by Torah law.
22)) Paul Siegel notes that the Puritans, like Shylock, were often seen by Elizabethans as usurious Pharisaic
hypocrites and misers contemptuous of merrymaking and revelry and that Shakespeare's Jew also has a modern parallel as a ruthless capitalist because his lending money gratis brings down the rate of usance.
The famous Quaker scholar of mysticism, Rufus Jones, admits that as a young man he, like many religious critics, found Whitman's voice arrogant and rather offensive to his own puritanical and Pharisaic
From this perspective, Pasolini's choice of Matthew's Gospel was a deliberate one, as Matthew's Jesus is revolutionary in his underscoring of social diversity and empowering moral thought, as pointed out by Serafino Murri, who states: "the director portrays the exasperated, human religious passion of Jesus, which emerges from the Gospel as a rage without a pause, and an anxiety of redemption for victims of the institutionalized Pharisaic
Jacob Neusner notes this important distinction when he writes, "The primary mark of Pharisaic
commitment was the observance of the laws of ritual purity outside of the Temple, where everyone kept them.
Josephus in Ant XX also relates the Pharisees' complaint about the death of James the brother of Jesus, mentioning that the "men of Jerusalem"--"that is the Pharisaic
Sages" --considered him to be a "just man.
The New American Bible explains in its commentary: "While the tradition of a deep opposition between Jesus and the Pharisees is well founded, this speech reflects an opposition that goes beyond that of Jesus' ministry and must be seen as expressing the bitter conflict between the Pharisaic
Judaism and the church of Matthew at the time when the gospel was composed.
She then asks: What was the religious life of women in the Pharisaic
To reject Pharisaic
Law is to support the Christology: the predominance of faith in the Gospel of John rather than the more rule bound Synoptic Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke.
5) From the perspective of Talmudic studies, Daniel Boyarin has also reexamined Paul's effort to balance the claims of ethnic particularity and universalism in the context of Pharisaic