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pharming (färˈmĭng), the use of genetically altered livestock, such as cows, goats, pigs, and chickens, to produce medically useful products. In pharming, researchers first create hybrid genes using animal DNA and the human or other gene that makes a desired substance, such as a hormone. Employing the techniques of genetic engineering, they then introduce the hybrid genes into animal embryos, which are then reimplanted into foster mothers and carried to term, creating transgenic animals that secrete human hormones or proteins, antibiotics, or other substances in their milk, blood, semen, eggs, or the like. The material containing the secreted substance is harvested, and the substance extracted and purified. The process has yielded drugs, such as growth hormone and antithrombin; blood components, such as hemoglobin; and large quantities of certain proteins needed for research.

Still largely in the developmental stage as a manufacturing process, pharming must overcome technical and economic hurdles, and substances produced as treatments for human beings also must be tested in clinical trials. Nevertheless, it is regarded as a more efficient alternative to the technique of using genetically altered bacteria or specially cultured animal cells to produce drugs, and as the only way to produce some more complex proteins. Also being experimentally explored is the use of genetically engineered plants, specifically rubber trees, to produce pharmaceuticals in their sap and the use of transgenic animals as sources of organs for medical transplantation. A necessary step toward the later was achieved in 2000 when pigs were cloned that lacked a gene that causes the human immune system to reject swine tissue.

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Setting up a fraudulent website that contains copies of pages from a legitimate website in order to capture confidential information from users. By hacking into the Internet's DNS servers and changing IP addresses, users are automatically redirected to the bogus site, at least for some period of time until the DNS records can be restored. See DNS hijacking.

For example, if a bank's DNS were changed, users could be redirected to a website that looks familiar. The bogus site could collect usernames and passwords or using some pretense request additional financial information. Unlike phishing schemes that use a link in an email message to go to the phony site, pharming is more natural. Users are purposefully going to a familiar site.

Check the Address Line
The only way to avoid being suckered in is to always check the address line in the browser. Most people never do this and may not even be familiar with the valid URL of the site they go to all the time because they just click a bookmark. For example, if were switched to, only an extremely observant user would notice and question this discrepancy. See phishing.
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References in periodicals archive ?
In conjunction with the commercialisation of RUCONEST, Pharming will expand its current small European team of experienced HAE marketing and medical affairs specialists.
In conjunction with the agreement, Pharming has selected a small European team of experienced HAE commercialisation and medical affairs specialists to take-over the direct commercialisation activities from Sobi for Ruconest in Austria, Germany and Netherlands.
Dr Bruno Giannetti, Pharming's chief operations officer, said that the company is looking forward to working with Santarus to prepare and file the Biologics License Application (BLA) for Ruconest with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the first half of 2013.
Pharming said it would use the convertible bond financing to enhance its balance sheet.
Pharming expects that its remaining 51% stake will further dilute when DNage finds new investors.
They will even use your security vendor or a federal organization as 'bait.' Fraudulent phishing and pharming sites need to be taken down immediately to thwart further attacks and damage.
It is intended to stop unauthorised users from altering domain settings, stealing or disabling websites and e-mail systems and domain hijacking to carry out pharming attacks.
Unlike Phishing, Pharming attacks hide silently in a network-connected computer and 'harvest' personal financial details of the users' regular Web surfing activities.
Francis Pinto, CEO of Pharming. "In addition, this transaction significantly advances the worldwide patent position of our protein production technology along with recent agreements with Infigen and ProBio and will allow the company to actively pursue licensing and partnering opportunities."