Herein we extend our study of the same pleuronectiform taxa by presenting the results of our examination of the gill rakers, jaw teeth and the teeth of the pharyngeal tooth plates, aspects previously not studied but potentially useful for the investigation of taxonomy, phylogeny and diet.
1984), the teeth on rakers usually of predatory fishes; gill raker tubercle, tooth-bearing structure, smaller than a plate; pharyngeal tooth plate, tooth-bearing pharyngeal bone on the floor or roof of the pharynx; pharyngobranchial tooth plate, a bony plate covered with teeth and situated at the top of the gill arch; rib, vertical straight or twisted bone structure on the cores of rakers; rudimentary gill raker, weakly developed, not yet ossified tiny rakers at one or both ends of an arch; tooth plate (= dentigerous plate), a general term for a flattened bony tooth-bearing structure on the floor or roof of the pharynx; tooth socket, the depression which holds the root of a tooth.
The morphology of jaw teeth, teeth of pharyngeal tooth plates and cores of gill rakers of the European plaice Pleuronectes platessa, European flounder Platichthys flesus trachurus and turbot Scophthalmus maximus have basic similarities as well as significant differences.
Fink (1981) classified several pleuronectiform species as having Type 2 teeth (tooth not fully ankylosed to the bone, but with a small area of unmineralized collagen at its base), both in their jaws and on their pharyngeal tooth plates.
Pharyngeal tooth were comprised by two pairs; the superior had a rounded and convex shape, whereas the inferior had a triangular one (Figure 3b).
According to Wootton (1990), shape, position and size of the mouth, shape and number of gill rakers and shape of the pharyngeal tooth are morphological traits related to feeding.
This seems to reveal the ability of the 'jundia' in crushing the shell with its pharyngeal tooth, sorting apart its fragments in order to ingest only the gastropod's body.
Gynogens to be fingerprinted were identified using pharyngeal tooth counts and intestinal morphology, following Goddard et al.
neogaeus, and hybrid gynogens using pharyngeal tooth counts and intestinal morphology.
Fish were then individually preserved and returned to the laboratory, where they were identified as gynogens or sexual progenitors based on pharyngeal tooth count and intestine morphology.
neogaeus, and hybrid gynogens based on intestinal and pharyngeal tooth characteristics.