where [omega] is the angular frequency, the real part [alpha] and the imaginary part [beta] of the propagation constant are the attenuation constant and

phase constant respectively.

In LWAs, the radiation properties are determined by the complex propagation constant [gamma] = [alpha] - j[beta], where [alpha] is the attenuation constant and is the

phase constant. While the former corresponds to a loss due to the leakage of energy, the latter determines the radiation angle of the main beam.

where [Z.sub.0] and [beta] are the characteristic impedance and the

phase constant of the transmission line, respectively.

Conventional leaky-wave (LW) antennas are based on a travelling wave that radiates continuously along a guiding structure, with a uniform

phase constant to produce a FF-focused beam (Figure 5(a)).

[alpha] is the attenuation (red lines) as Nepers/m and [beta] is the

phase constant (blue lines) as rad/m.

The copper surface roughness can alter the

phase constant of an EM wave, (2) changing the phase response of the circuit.

The chromatographic studies were carried out by using column having unique selectivity and high loading capacity; Gemini C18 (5 um; 4.6mmx250 mm, Phenomenex, California, USA) and the mobile phase used consists of Na2HPO4 solution (30 mM) with pH 7.0 and acetonitrile (50:50); by keeping the composition of mobile

phase constant at 1.0 mL/min.

In the line-voltage solution (1), [U.sub.0.sup.D] and [U.sub.0.sup.R] stand for the direct and reflected waves amplitudes as seen at the generator's node, while the complex propagation constant y of (2), determines the attenuation constant [alpha] and the

phase constant [beta].

The average beam formed from N nodes with the

phase constant [theta]i from each node to destination and beamforming weights [[theta].sub.wi] is given by equation (3) as in [22].

Magnitude of

phase constant of I- and II-modes excluding quantum effect increase slowly with increment in carrier drift but including QE

phase constant is nearly nonvariant up to [E.sub.0] = 4.3 x [10.sup.5] V[m.sup.-1].

The complex wave mode implies that the

phase constant and the attenuation constant of the propagation constant are both nonzero.