It is textbook (4) knowledge that the loss of a medium contributes to the phase constant, as well as the attenuation constant, in the exact solution.

4 and 5 apply only to a homogeneous medium, the general concept that loss (as represented by [sigma]) will influence the phase constant applies to practical circuitry as well.

It should also be noted that in many of the simpler circuit models and simulators, the phase constant in a "good dielectric" is approximated by

An unexpected influence of conductor profile on the phase constant is particularly evident in thinner laminates.

The present authors found only two recent papers directly addressing the effects of conductor profile on the phase constant.

However, since the method of H&J uses the simplified equation for the phase constant (Eq.

Deutsch et at (11) also show that complete electromagnetic wave simulation, which includes detailed roughness, predicts an increase in phase constant that is similar in magnitude to that seen in present work.

2), show no effect of loss on the phase constant, since [beta] is calculated using Eq.

The authors tested several circuit simulation software packages and found similar results: Changes in the input conductor loss did not cause any change in the calculated phase constant.

The models presumably calculate the phase constant by Eq.

In more detailed software models, decreasing the input value of conductivity indeed increased the phase constant (as suggested by Eq.