The copper surface roughness can alter the

phase constant of an EM wave, (2) changing the phase response of the circuit.

The complex wave mode implies that the

phase constant and the attenuation constant of the propagation constant are both nonzero.

The slow-wave microstrip line can improve the

phase constant [beta] of the electromagnetic wave conducted in the microstrip.

The

phase constant [beta] can be purely real or purely imaginary depending on whether the radicand is positive or negative, respectively.

Besides, this additional resistance does neither affect the

phase constant nor the characteristic impedance but only the attenuation constant (Fig.

We can calculate the

phase constant of the fundamental space harmonic, only when we assume the periodic permittivity modulation applied is same as the unperturbed

phase constant.

In addition, LWA support a fast wave on the guiding structure, where the

phase constant [beta] is less than the free-space wave number [k.

Here h = h'-ih" is the complex propagation constant where h' is the

phase constant and h" is the attenuation constant (waveguide losses).

It is textbook (4) knowledge that the loss of a medium contributes to the

phase constant, as well as the attenuation constant, in the exact solution.

The broadened width of the DGS microstrip line can be understood as an increased equivalent capacitance, which plays an important role in raising the

phase constant and slow-wave effects.

0] + 2[pi]n/p is the propagation

phase constant of the nth space harmonic; the transverse mode number [[tau].

We know that the resonance absorption occurs when a phase-matching condition is satisfied: the

phase constant of an evanescent order coincides with the real part of an eigenvalue of surface plasmons.