where [omega] is the angular frequency, the real part [alpha] and the imaginary part [beta] of the propagation constant are the attenuation constant and phase constant
In LWAs, the radiation properties are determined by the complex propagation constant [gamma] = [alpha] - j[beta], where [alpha] is the attenuation constant and is the phase constant
. While the former corresponds to a loss due to the leakage of energy, the latter determines the radiation angle of the main beam.
where [Z.sub.0] and [beta] are the characteristic impedance and the phase constant
of the transmission line, respectively.
Conventional leaky-wave (LW) antennas are based on a travelling wave that radiates continuously along a guiding structure, with a uniform phase constant
to produce a FF-focused beam (Figure 5(a)).
[alpha] is the attenuation (red lines) as Nepers/m and [beta] is the phase constant
(blue lines) as rad/m.
The copper surface roughness can alter the phase constant
of an EM wave, (2) changing the phase response of the circuit.
The chromatographic studies were carried out by using column having unique selectivity and high loading capacity; Gemini C18 (5 um; 4.6mmx250 mm, Phenomenex, California, USA) and the mobile phase used consists of Na2HPO4 solution (30 mM) with pH 7.0 and acetonitrile (50:50); by keeping the composition of mobile phase constant
at 1.0 mL/min.
In the line-voltage solution (1), [U.sub.0.sup.D] and [U.sub.0.sup.R] stand for the direct and reflected waves amplitudes as seen at the generator's node, while the complex propagation constant y of (2), determines the attenuation constant [alpha] and the phase constant
The average beam formed from N nodes with the phase constant
[theta]i from each node to destination and beamforming weights [[theta].sub.wi] is given by equation (3) as in .
Magnitude of phase constant
of I- and II-modes excluding quantum effect increase slowly with increment in carrier drift but including QE phase constant
is nearly nonvariant up to [E.sub.0] = 4.3 x [10.sup.5] V[m.sup.-1].
The complex wave mode implies that the phase constant
and the attenuation constant of the propagation constant are both nonzero.