The diagnosis of luteal phase defect was made by using Jones criteria.
Luteal phase defect may be the cause of infertility in ovulatory cycles.
Along with both of these is a greater chance of a luteal phase defect
 A luteal phase defect (defect in corpus luteum function) with insufficient progesterone production results in endometrial development unsuitable for embryonic implantation and is associated with RPL.
There is no standardised diagnostic method available to assess the true incidence and effect of luteal phase defect. Endometrial biopsy is not recommended, since studies have shown that it does not predict fertility status.
Terminator projections due to both white cloud and suspended dust have been reported by many past observers, particularly when using large telescopes visually, and when Mars was close to quadrature and the phase defect
at a maximum.
There is no established norm for progesterone levels in the first trimester, but luteal phase defect
or progesterone deficiency also have been implicated in RPL.
Women should not be offered an endometrial biopsy to evaluate the luteal phase because there is no evidence that medical treatment of luteal phase defect
improves pregnancy rates.
(5) It is associated with oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, anovulation, luteal phase defect
A further experiment of the same group  was devoted to a detailed study of the phase defects
. In particular, an efficiency of the defect formation was measured as a function of temperature.
Endometrial biopsy during treatment of luteal phase defects
is predictive of therapeutic outcome.
In this first book of its kind, Paganin covers x-ray wave-fields in free space, including Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction, Kirshcoff and Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory and partially coherent fields, x-ray interactions with matter, including wave equations in the presence of scatterers, Born series and dynamic scattering and multislice approximation, x-ray sources and their optical elements and detectors, including diffractive, reflective and refractive optical elements as will as virtual optical elements, coherent x-ray imaging including holography and phase retrieval and singular x-ray optics such as Nodal lines, domain walls and other topological phase defects
and polynomial vortex solutions to the d'Alembert equation.