There are three components: phase discriminator
(PD), loop filter (LF), and numerically controlled oscillator (NCO).
where [[sigma].sup.2.sub.i] is the carrier phase discriminator
output noise variance of the ith satellite.
When ranging accuracy request is low or platform is particularly affected by power limitations, pulse train MPPSK modulator 1 will stop transmitting CW in carrier frequency [f.sub.0], and receiver 1, which is mainly composed of phase discriminator
(PD), also stops working.
On the other side,  applies fast Fourier transformation (FFT) into the output of the phase discriminator
(PD) of QPSK ADCOL, to roughly estimate frequency offset and then speed up the procedure of the carrier recovery of the ADCOL.
As a traditional PLL (phase locked loop) phase discriminator
with nonlinear characteristic and the loop is easy to lose lock [9,10].
The phase equilibrium of the tensions obtained at the switch output (2) and, at the homologous terminals of the tested transformer 5, is compared with a phase discriminator
4 and a null indicator 6.
Reducing CW carrier leakage into the RF port of the mixers is critical to receiver performance since the resulting phase discriminator
generates unwanted DC signal offsets.
Since the QIFM essentially is a phase discriminator
, DQIFMs also can be used as phase discriminators
when the LO and RF are located at the same frequency provided there is enough power at the LO port to bias the diodes.
This can be accomplished for a very small percentage increase over the cost of an amplitude system (i.e., additional antenna array and phase discriminator
Since the heart of the IFM is the phase discriminator
, which, essentially, is a quadrature IF mixer (QIFM), the logical offshoot of the single-channel Micro DFD is a single-channel phase discriminator
The signal sources are fed into a mixer, which will be set up as a phase discriminator
. A condition of the measurement technique requires that the two signal sources be at precisely the same frequency.
Figure 3 shows an oscillogram of the phase discriminator