By properly selecting shapes and dimensions of the DRA and the Alford loop, the orthogonal electric fields of the equivalent electric and magnetic dipoles which are equal in amplitude with phase quadrature
within the three separate frequency bands can be achieved.
The radiant crossed dipoles are driven in phase quadrature
by diagonally positioning the feeding probe to obtain CP performance.
The 1st BioCD demonstration was related in structure to conventional optical compact discs, but rather than operating in digital mode, it was modified to operate in interferometric phase quadrature
(3), in which the signal and reference beams have a 90[degrees] relative phase difference.
Two equal outputs from ports 3 and 4, but in phase quadrature
Figure 6 shows the carrier suppression as a function of DC offset voltage where the phase quadrature
error [beta] of the LO divider is a parameter between 1[degrees] and 10[degrees], and [alpha] = 1[degrees], [delta] = 1 dB and K = 1.
The diagram clearly illustrates that the voltage wave emerging from the input port will have zero amplitude (that is, be 180 [degrees] out of phase) as long as an equal power split exists between the direct and coupled ports with phase quadrature
, resulting in a perfect input and output impedance match.
This conversion is achieved by providing a transmission path, which is a function of polarization that divides a linear wave into two components with space and phase quadrature
. CP performance may be achieved over an octave bandwidth when many layers of meander lines are used.
The LO circuitry in the model BF9957 IC is similar to the circuitry in the model RF9958 in that it uses a divide-by-two flip-flop architecture to achieve phase quadrature
, implying that the LO frequency must be twice the IF to demodulate down to baseband properly.
The crystal frequency is applied to the device in phase quadrature
via the LO phasing circuit.
A state-variable oscillator topology guarantees better than [+ or -]3 [degrees] phase quadrature
from 400 kHz to 22 MHz, spanning the common IFs of 455 kHz, 10.7 MHz and 21.4 MHz, as well as any other frequency in this range.
Two AD831 mixers may have their RF inputs connected in parallel and have their LO inputs driven in phase quadrature
, to provide demodulated in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) outputs, as shown in Figure 2.
and where the two outputs are in phase quadrature
for all frequencies.