Using the PMU, synchronized phasor
signals can be signified in (2) 
A survey on modeling of microgrids--From fundamental physics to phasors
and voltage sources.
measurement units (PMUs) are indispensable tools for many applications in power systems, such as real-time voltage and current monitoring, protection, control, fault detection, and power quality monitoring, among others [1-3].
As an alternative to the traditional modeling approach [19, 20], dynamic phasor
(DP) method is very useful for the harmonic analysis of SPVSC [21-23].
where | * | and [parallel] * [parallel], respectively, represent the modulo and Euclidean norm, [c.sub.j] is the jth line of the matrix C, [b.sub.k] is the kth column of the matrix B, [alpha]([W.sub.i], [c.sub.j]) is the angle between the output phasor
[c.sub.j] and the right eigenvector [W.sub.i], and [theta]([N.sub.i],[b.sub.k]) is the angle between the output phasor
[b.sub.k] and the left eigenvector [N.sub.i].
Fast voltagecollapse line protection algorithm based on local phasors
. IEE Proceedings on Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 150 4, 482-486.
In order to eliminate the error caused by exponentially decaying dc offset on the computations of fundamental and harmonic phasors
, an extended discrete Fourier transform algorithm is also proposed.
Since only the [xi]-th mode is excited, from (16), (7), (9) and (8), the phasors
of the line electric quantities become:
A new fault locator for three-terminal transmission lines-using two-terminal synchronized voltage, current phasors
. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 2002;17(2):452-9.