Phenocopy


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Related to Phenocopy: genocopy, Genetic heterogeneity

phenocopy

[¦fēn·ə¦käp·ē]
(genetics)
The nonhereditary alteration of a phenotype to a form imitating a mutant trait; caused by external conditions during development.

Phenocopy

 

a nonhereditary change in a phenotype, induced by specific environmental conditions and mimicking of some known hereditary change, or mutation, as exhibited in the phenotype. For example, nonhereditary teratism, or monstrosities, may be induced in the genetically normal embryos and larvae of some insects by various means, including high temperatures and vaporized ether; examples of such monstrosities, which may be observed in adult individuals, are a change in the number of legs or wings or the transformation of antennae into legs. These monstrosities are phenocopies of similar but hereditary changes that normally develop, in the absence of any external influence, in a number of mutant insect strains.

Phenocopies of various mutuations may be experimentally induced in other species of animals and plants as well. As a rule, the possible range of such phenocopies is not determined by the nature of the operative factor, but rather by the stage of development of the experimental organism. Presumably, some external factor that produces phenocopies in normal individuals interferes with the activity of the corresponding normal genes, resulting in the appearance of a mutant phenotype. The study of phenocopies is thus an important field of inquiry for phenogenetic research.

REFERENCES

Lobashev, M. E. Genetika. Leningrad, 1967.
Goldschmidt, R. B. Physiological Genetics. New York, 1938.

V. I. IVANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Cognitive loss in zinc transporter-3 knock-out mice: a phenocopy for the synaptic and memory deficits of Alzheimer's disease?
Exposing normal (wild-type) flies to an unnaturally high temperature for a few hours during their pupa stage caused ~40% of them to develop a crossveinless phenocopy.
As such, we administered azothioprine systemically to wild-type and ITPase heterozygous mutant adult flies to determine if we could phenocopy the toxicity observed in human patients.
Mendelian randomization is therefore a means to address the phenocopy (a phenotype similar to a genetic syndrome but due to an environmental exposure) and the genocopy (a genetic effect that could as readily be caused by an environmental exposure) in investigating an observed association.
A phenocopy of CAII deficiency: a novel genetic explanation for inherited infantile osteopetrosis with distal renal tubular acidosis.
Piaget, Jean, Adaptation and Intelligence: Organic Selection and Phenocopy, trans.
This method has excellent power for detecting epistasis in studies of nuclear families with low phenocopy errors (8) (Martin et al.
From 5 to 25% of these lines with very low phytic acid were characterized by an impaired or arrested embryo development, representing a phenocopy of an embryo-specific mutant (Fig.
notes that akinesia can be "a good phenocopy of depression.