phenylalanine


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Related to phenylalanine: Phenylalanine hydroxylase

phenylalanine

(fĕn'əlăl`ənēn'), organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acidsamino acid
, any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.
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 commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein. It is one of several essential amino acids needed in the diet; human beings cannot synthesize it from simpler metabolites. Young adults need about 31 mg of this amino acid per day per kg (14 mg per lb) of body weight. Phenylalanine can be degraded into simpler compounds by the enzymes of the body and is readily converted to the amino acid tyrosinetyrosine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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. Phenylketonuriaphenylketonuria
(PKU), inherited metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in a specific enzyme (phenylalanine hydroxylase). The absence of this enzyme, a recessive trait, prevents the body from making use of phenylalanine, one of the amino acids in most protein-rich foods, and
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 (PKU), an inherited disease that, if left untreated, results in retarded mental development in children, has been shown to be associated with the lack of activity of the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine. This results in the buildup of phenylalanine in the blood, an event leading to several pathological consequences. The incidence of this disease, about one in every 10,000 births, is high enough to have prompted several states to institute regular screening procedures for the detection of the disease in newborns. If diagnosed early the disease can be controlled to a great extent by administering a diet very low in phenylalanine. Phenylalanine contributes to the structure of proteins into which it has been incorporated by the tendency of its side chain to participate in hydrophobic interactions (see isoleucineisoleucine
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.
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). This amino acid was first isolated from a natural source (lupine sprouts) in 1879; it was first chemically synthesized in 1882.

Phenylalanine

 

(also alpha-amino-beta-phenylpropionic acid), C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOH, an aromatic amino acid. Phenylalanine exists in dextrorotatory (D), levorotatory (L), and racemic (DL) forms. In its L form, the amino acid is present (3–8 percent) in all natural proteins except protamines, and it occurs in the free state in animals, plants, and microorganisms. L-phenylalanine is an essential amino acid, the daily requirement of which is 4.3 mg/kg for adult males, 3.1 mg/kg for adult females, and 90 mg/kg for children. It is continuously formed in the body from the breakdown of proteins derived from food and tissue proteins. The need for phenylalanine increases in the absence of the amino acid tyrosine in food; tyrosine is normally formed in the liver by the hydroxylation of phenylalanine with the participation of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. The disruption of this process through a genetically caused defect leads to the accumulation of phenylalanine in the body cells and fluids. Disruption of the normal pathway for the conversion of phenylalanine produces secondary biochemical reactions (Figure 1) that lead to the formation of phenylpyruvic, phenyllactic, and phenylacetic acids in the body and to the development of a disease known as phenylketonuria.

Figure 1. Pathways for the metabolism of phenylalanine in humans

In normal metabolism, phenylalanine is converted through tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine, melanins, norepinephrine, and adrenaline; to a slight extent, it undergoes transamination. The direct precursor in the biosynthesis of phenylalanine in plants and microorganisms is phenylpyruvic acid, the aromatic ring of which is synthesized in a complex sequence of enzyme-catalyzed reactions from phosphophenylpyruvic acid and D-erythrose-4-phosphate by way of shikimic acid. In the breakdown of L-phenylalanine in the body, eight of the nine carbon atoms are introduced into the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the form of acetyl coenzyme A and fumarate; one carbon atom is converted into CO2. In the decomposition of proteins, especially in the intestines of animals and humans, phenylalanine is converted into the biogenic amine phenethylamine.

REFERENCES

Meister, A. Biokhimiia aminokislot. Moscow, 1961. (Translated from English.)
Harris, H. Osnovy biokhimicheskoi genetiki cheloveka. Moscow, 1973. (Translated from English.)

E. N. SAFONOVA

phenylalanine

[¦fen·əl′al·ə‚nēn]
(biochemistry)
C9H11O2N An essential amino acid, obtained in the levo form by hydrolysis of proteins (as lactalbumin); converted to tyrosine in the normal body. Also known as α-aminohydrocinnamic acid; α-amino-β-phenylpropionic acid; β-phenylalanine.
References in periodicals archive ?
The study shows how phenylalanine reduces food intake by affecting the gut and the brain, and suggests that it may be used to prevent or treat obesity.
The Phenylalanine Hydroxylase (PAH) gene, being 90-100 kb, is embedded in the genomic location 102, 836, 885-102, 958, 410, on the chromosomal region 12q23.
PKU is looked for in all UK newborns today by measuring phenylalanine levels in the heelprick blood test.
With minimal processing mode, in the protein of wheat, largest changes are observed for proline, leucine + isoleucine, and phenylalanine and the lowest in arginine and methionine.
Arg: arginine, His: histidine, Ile: Isoleucine, Leu: leucine, Met: methionine, Met+Cys: methionine+cysteine, Phe: phenylalanine, Phe+Tyr: phenylalanine+tyrosine, Thr: treonine, Trp: triptofano, and Val: valine.
Fifty percent of ASP is comprised of phenylalanine, which could cross the blood-brain barrier and act as a precursor of catecholamines in the brain.
1,2) In numerous countries, the screening process lead to the detection of certain congenital diseases, such as Phenylketonuria (PKU), one of many common inborn disorders caused by a metabolic error, a result of Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency.
The body is unable to break down a substance called phenylalanine, which builds up in the blood and brain.
This cannot release enough phenylalanine to cause a problem for those with PKU.
Ultrafiltration experiments were conducted to evaluate the chiral separation ability of the prepared membrane towards racemate aqueous solution of Phenylalanine.
The 19-month-old Pakistani girl was born with a condition known as phenylketonuria, which is a type of birth defect that causes the amino acid phenylalanine to build up inside the body.

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