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the spirit of active goodwill toward others as demonstrated in efforts to promote their welfare. The term is often used interchangeably with charity. Every year vast sums of money are collected for invaluable philanthropic purposes, and an increasing number of people participate in the work of collecting money through highly organized campaigns, the purpose of which is fund-raisingfund-raising,
large-scale soliciting of voluntary contributions, especially in the United States. Fund-raising is widely undertaken by charitable organizations, educational institutions, and political groups to acquire sufficient funds to support their activities.
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. In many countries philanthropy has been incorporated in government policy in the form of tax exemptions for contributions to charitable agencies. It has become so accepted that few now escape the demands of giving, and many important institutions are partly or wholly dependent on it.

In early times, charity was usually prompted by religious faith and helped to assure a reward in an afterlife, a notion found in Egypt many centuries before the Christian era. Throughout history, active participation in philanthropy has been a particular characteristic of Western societies. A traditional philanthropic ideal of Christianity is that of the tithe, which holds that one tenth of a person's income should go to charity. Charity is also important in Islam, Buddhism, and other religions. Foundationsfoundation,
institution through which private wealth is contributed and distributed for public purpose. Foundations have existed since Greek and Roman times, when they honored deities.
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—institutions that distribute private wealth for public purposes—also have an ancient history.

At the end of the 19th cent. it was recognized that corporations could play a part in financing voluntary agencies when the Young Men's Christian Association set a new pattern for raising money: intensive drives over a short period of time, the use of sophisticated techniques to raise money, and an emphasis on corporation donations. Other voluntary agencies soon copied this pattern, and it is still the typical practice for large-scale fundraising. During World War I, coordination of effort became a trend in philanthropic activity. In the United States, this coordination took the form of Community Chestscommunity chest,
cooperative organization of citizens and social welfare agencies in a city. Also known as a united fund, it has two purposes: to raise funds through an annual campaign for its member agencies and to budget the funds raised.
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, which combined a number of charities under one appeal, now known as the United Way.

Today the organization and coordination of philanthropy has eliminated much of the spontaneity of giving. They have also brought about a more rational assessment of ability to give as well as the introduction of scientific methods of ascertaining community and national needs and of raising money. The focus has also shifted from the relief of immediate need to long-term planning to prevent future need.


Appleseed, Johnny
nickname of John Chapman (c. 1775–1847), who traveled through the Ohio Valley giving away apple seeds and caring for orchards. [Am. Hist.: Collier’s, IV, 569]
Carnegie, Andrew (1835–1919)
steel magnate who believed the rich should administer wealth—for public benefit. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 83]
19th- and 20th-century family name of American industrialists and philanthropists. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 1159]
Mellon, Andrew (1855–1937)
financier and public official; left large sums for research and art. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 1743]
Rhodes, Cecil (1853–1902) British
imperialist; left millions of pounds for public service; notably, the Rhodes scholarships. [Br. Hist.: NCE, 2316]
Rockefeller, John D(avison)
(1839–1937) American multimillionaire; endowed many institutions. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 431]
References in periodicals archive ?
The Australian Government is proud to support Community and Philanthropy Partnerships Week with a $650,000 investment to promote and encourage philanthropy at the grassroots.
Unlike a half-century ago, as Callahan argues, there no longer is a single, cohesive, and homogeneous philanthropy establishment.
For more information, and to find out how to become a supporter of the SDG Philanthropy Platform in India, contact Radhika Shah at radhika@cs.
Early corporate philanthropy was actually nothing more than the compassionate acts of entrepreneurs influenced by religious doctrine.
Critique: Exceptionally well written, organized, and presented, it could be argued that philanthropist Jean Shafiroffs "Successful Philanthropy: How to Make a Life By What You Give" is one of her more extraordinary and impressive acts of philanthropy.
Pasic joined the IUPUI administration in January as the second dean of the Lilly Family School of Philanthropy.
Acs implicitly poses the following question in his book's title: Why does philanthropy matter?
With tailored guidance and examples from experts in their field, the book is intended to complement the philanthropy offering from the bank which includes research, master classes and workshops.
Speaking on the occasion, Sheikha Aisha said that the Academy of Philanthropy was brought to Qatar to educate people on philanthropy.
Rounding, senior vice president for Philanthropy at Henry Ford Health System, received the Outstanding Fundraising Executive Award from the Association of Fundraising Professionals-Greater Detroit Chapter.
Peter Frumkin, Strategic Giving: The Art and Science of Philanthropy.