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In simultaneous interpreting, does a source text in English that features non-native phonemics affect rendition accuracy of a target text in Chinese?
The key issue in the translation of verbal memory tests is to take into account the following factors: word frequency, mental imagery, phonemic similarity, semantic or word length equivalence.
It is the basis of all alphabetic writing systems (though, to be sure, few writing systems are consistently phonemic), and even speakers of unwritten languages are reported to have intuitive access to the phonemic structure of words.
(6) It is impossible, and probably undesirable, to devise a transliteration system intended to represent the phonemics or even the phonetics of Sumerian.
69-85), which despite its title deals neither with phonology nor phonemics. Its goal, simple but probably impossible, is to nail down the sounds of Lhasa Tibetan in IPA notation.
However, a critical problem, and the one relevant here, concerns the two contrasting taps, "dental" /r/ and alveolar /r/.(2) In terms of surface phonemics, they clearly contrast initially and intervocalically, while the contrast is neutralized finally and in consonant clusters.
As for the phonological processes underlying this development we know far too little about either the phonetic detail or the systematic phonemics of historical Hittite to do more than speculate.
A pronunciation rule is a hypothesis about the predictive properties of a particular graphemic environment in relation to the phonemic value of the letters affected by it.
The difference between the GWOI and the GWI in their performance on phonemic awareness was also significant, indicating that phonemic awareness properly distinguished children with and without indications of reading and writing disorders.
The basic split in orientations to research stems from work in cross-cultural anthropology by linguist Kenneth Pike (1966) who coined the terms "emic" and "etic" using the suffixes of the terms phonemic and phonetic.