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fraud, in law, willful misrepresentation intended to deprive another of some right. The offense, generally only a tort, may also constitute the crime of false pretenses. Frauds are either actual or constructive. An actual fraud requires that the act be motivated by the desire to deceive another to his harm, while a constructive fraud is a presumption of overreaching conduct that arises when a profit is made from a relation of trust (see fiduciary). The courts have found it undesirable to make a rigid definition of the type of misrepresentation that amounts to actual fraud and have preferred to consider individually the factors in each case. The misrepresentation may be a positive lie, a failure to disclose information, or even a statement made in reckless disregard of possible inaccuracy. Actual fraud can never be the result of accident or negligence, because of the requirement that the act be intended to deceive. The question of commission may depend upon the competence and commercial knowledge of the alleged victim. Thus dealings with a minor, a lunatic, a feeble-minded person, a drunkard, or (in former times) a married woman are scrutinized more closely than dealings with an experienced businessman. A lawsuit based upon actual or constructive fraud must specify the fraudulent act, the plaintiff's reliance on it, and the loss suffered. The remedy granted to the plaintiff in most cases is either compensatory (and possibly punitive) damages for the injury or cancellation of the contract or other agreement and the restoration of the parties to their former status. In a few states of the United States both damages and cancellation are available. In certain suits based upon a contract, fraud may be introduced as a defense.
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(1) A hustle, racket or swindle. See scam call, phishing, ransomware and malware.

(2) (SCAM) (SCSI Configured AutoMatically) A subset of Plug and Play that allowed SCSI IDs to be changed by software rather than by flipping switches or changing jumpers. Both the SCSI host adapter and peripheral must support SCAM. See SCSI.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The governor said that banks were not doing enough to sort out mortgage arrears and the concept of strategic default is a 'phoney' one.
Also seized were phoney GStar jeans, which had been manufactured with the wrong type of fabric, and Henley's hooded tops, said to be poorly stitched and with counterfeit labels sewn in.
Have a heart Old Phoney, get that brown ale in the post.
It's as phoney as Michael Heseltine (Llanelli)or Woy Jenkins' (Abersychan) speak.
Unscrupulous colleges are helping to smuggle thousands of the phoney students into the UK every year.
PHONEY BLAIR The phoney smile, pretence to care That very dodgy dossier The grinning head there constantly He puts the wind up folk like me The conference speech, the flock in awe At every chance the faithful roar Those trips abroad, he loves to roam The world his stage, no time for home The Iraq War a million screams The thousands blown to smithereens And all this built upon a lie While those who knew just walked on by And then that going for Bush's pup He had the cheek to pick it up If truth prevails then history Will see him thus most will agree A smiling conman, with Bush so dim The truth it never bothered him And out of all this misery He's making millions now we see HIs epitaph upon his stone "Iraq", one word, upon its own.
PHONEY: Some of the badges seized; HOUSE RAID: Trading standards officer Richard Ferry with scarves
In what is likely to be the phoney war to end all phoney wars, Hills go just 4-1 that of tonight's starting line-ups, no more than 11 will start next month's Cardiff showpiece.
Phoney traditions, phoney flags, and what I can call phoney Welsh.
This is the first volume of a fantasy epic starring the Bone cousins--Fone Bone, Phoney Bone and Smiley Bone--who leave Boneville rather quickly after Phoney Bone's campaign for mayor, which involves 50-foot balloons and bad prunes, causes a riot.