Phoresy by North and Central American pseudoscorpions.
Arthropod phoresy involving pseudoscorpions in the past and present.
1980) noted that chironomid (primarily Rheotanytarsus) phoresy on benthic macroinvertebrates was relatively common in streams with sandy bottoms.
It is thought that the benefits of phoresy for chironomids include a host substrate with fewer competitors, ample food resources and a mechanism for dispersal (McCafferty, 1981; Tokeshi, 2006).
Tokeshi (2006) concluded that phoresy practiced by the Chironomidae provided a strategy for these midges to overcome limits of mobility and to decrease predation.
A multiple linear regression was performed, using phoresy
score as the dependent variable and the nine sclerotized traits as the independent variables (see Lande and Arnold 1983).
This represents only the tenth record of phoresy of Anoplura by Diptera and the fifth record by Muscidae.
Durden (1990, table 1) documented six previous studies that report phoresy of Anoplura by Diptera; however, he did not elaborate on the work of Nuttall (1917).
Although the primary function of phoresy is dispersal, phoretic associations may be complex (Binns 1982; O'Connor 1982; Houck & O'Connor 1991).
The negative impacts of phoresy could lead to parasitism and is often regarded as a transition between phoresy and parasitism (Houck & Cohen 1995).
Keywords: Packrats, Neotoma, phoresy, commensalism, mutualism
Phoresy is defined as "A symbiotic relationship, especially among arthropods and some fishes, in which one organism transports another organism of a different species" (http://www.