Their dispersal capability by walking is very low and species that do not use phoresy for their dispersal, typically those inhabiting leaf litter, tend to have limited distributions and show tendencies to short-range endemism (Gardini 2013; Gardini 2014; Harrison et al.
hahnii individuals across an approximately 1830 km range, encompassing most of the European species' distribution in order to establish whether this species uses phoresy and how efficient is this manner of dispersal in arthropods.
as migration: some functions and aspects of phoresy
To our knowledge, we report here the first documentation of phoresy
by Sphenochernes camponoti.
(1980) noted that chironomid (primarily Rheotanytarsus) phoresy
on benthic macroinvertebrates was relatively common in streams with sandy bottoms.
A multiple linear regression was performed, using phoresy
score as the dependent variable and the nine sclerotized traits as the independent variables (see Lande and Arnold 1983).
striatopunctatus, which favors the dispersion of pseudoscorpions, making phoresy
an effective method for their distribution, Lustrochernes is widely distributed in the Americas and its family Chernetidae is one of the most diverse of the Pseudoscorpionida in which it is common to find cases of phoresy
(Beier 1948; Muchmore 1971a, 1971b).
Durden (1990, table 1) documented six previous studies that report phoresy
of Anoplura by Diptera; however, he did not elaborate on the work of Nuttall (1917).
The negative impacts of phoresy
could lead to parasitism and is often regarded as a transition between phoresy
and parasitism (Houck & Cohen 1995).
Thirty-two species of pseudoscorpions have been found co-existing with nine packrat (or wondrat) species of the genus Neotoma, and this association has been referred to as phoresy
is a term for passive dispersal when an animal literally hitches a ride on another to reach a new habitat.
hirsuta with Chiroptera extends beyond larval nutrition alone, to adult phoresy
. It is also not known whether other populations exist in similar habitats, or whether Ukasi Hill represents the only (relict) site.
Most occur in potentially limited habitats and may be associated with increased humidity or, in pseudoscorpions, opportunities for phoresy
, but do not seem to be truly social groups by most definitions.