TG synthesis impairment was also associated with downregulation of two important enzymes of this pathway: 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2) and the phosphatidate
phosphatase LPIN1 (lipin1) in BSCL2 knockdown during adipogenesis [11, 45].
Brindley, "Unlike two peas in a pod: lipid phosphate phosphatases and phosphatidate
phosphatases," Chemical Reviews, vol.
 Recently, the inhibitory effect of berberine has been reported on the liver phosphatidate
phosphohydrolase (PAP) activity.
Yanagita, "Effect of hesperetin, a citrus flavonoid, on the liver triacylglycerol content and phosphatidate
phosphohydrolase activity in orotic acid-fed rats," Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol.
Reue, "Three mammalian lipins act as phosphatidate
phosphatases with distinct tissue expression patterns," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Most of these enzymes encountered little change in their expression levels, except for phosphatidate
phosphatase (PP) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT).
Regarding PA, it is an acid form of phosphatidate
, a part of common phospholipids which are major components of cell membranes.
In the PI-signal, diacylglycerol (DAG) is the first identified mammalian second messenger to enhance the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) and it is converted to phosphatidate
, another messenger, by DAG kinase (DGK).
Characterization of phosphatidate
phosphohydrolase activity associated with isolated lamellar bodies.
Lipin proteins act as [Mg.sup.2+]-dependent phosphatidate
phosphatase (PAP) and catalyze the penultimate step of converting phosphatidic acid (PA) to diacylglycerol (DAG) in the glycerol phosphate pathway (Han et al., 2006; Donkor et al., 2007).
effect of garlic on liver phosphatidate
phosphohydrolase and plasma lipid levels in hyperlipidemic rats.
L-NAME was previously reported to elevate circulating lipids [15-17] due to increased triglyceride synthesis through induction of hepatic phosphatidate
phosphohydrolase (an enzyme essential in triglyceride synthesis) and decreased oxidation due to suppression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), and elevation of cholesterol secondary to lower bile acid synthesis due to suppression of hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the latter two genes being known targets for PPAR[alpha] [18,19].